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Thursday, June 16, 2011

Websites in Mathematics

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TEAM LEADERSHIP COURSE


001


Custom Essays on Websites in Mathematics


NEIL PLUMRIDGE








Action Research Project


Numeracy � Implications and Planning for the Future


Team Leadership Course


001


N F Plumridge


Coomealla High School





Table of Contents Page


Introduction 4


What is Numeracy and how are States catering for numeracy 5-7


Numeracy for Indigenous people 7-


Numeracy for people with special needs


Planning for Numeracy across the School -10


The role of Parents and the Community 10-11


SNAP Analysis 000 � 001 11-15


Coomealla High School Numeracy Plan 00-00 16-18


Elementary Numeracy Lesson Plan 1-0


Appendices 1-4


Bibliography 5





Introduction


The purpose of this research paper is to outline where Coomealla High School has come from in the area of numeracy provision to all students, what is currently occurring and a proposed course of action to be undertaken.


Later in this paper both Australian and world trends are examined to show the progress made as a nation but the first part of the paper presents Coomealla High between 15 and 1 and the thinking and practices that were evident in these years.


Mathematics was seen to be the sole domain of the Mathematics KLA and because of this they had the responsibility of numeracy development with the school. Little attention was placed on individual students as class were streamed according to ability and lessons planned and delivered based around the premise that all students within a class were of similar ability in the area of Mathematics.


Class placement for students coming into year 7 (whilst stages of learning eg stage and 4 were talked about in articles, students were placed according to year level and chronological age) was done largely by forming or 4 group of equals numbers of students, teaching topics decided by the classroom teaches and having all students doing a ‘common test’ which were graded and students ranked on performance. This practice went on until the end of term 1, or some years term , when students were placed in streamed classes. The practice of ‘common testing’ prevailed until the end of year 8 ( stage 4 ) and students subsequently placed in the appropriate course in years and 10 ( stage 5 learning ). All assessment was content performance. No consideration was given to outcomes or methods of learning.


Students found it very difficult to move between classes (except in a downward direction) as performance had to be outstanding to warrant a move).


The emergence of Course Performance Descriptors in Mathematics (and other KLAs) set some staff to thinking that ‘common testing’ was not an appropriate method of assessment for judging standards students had achieved.


Mathematics teachers, traditionally, have been reticent to change their teaching and assessment culture. This new pedagogy was seen as a direct affront to the adage of “ I was taught this way, I have always taught this way and I will always teach this way”.


It was also at this time that some teachers also started to see the difference between Mathematics and Numeracy. The responsibility for these areas still rested with the Maths KLA however some teachers started to lead by example and assess their students numeracy ability by exploring what they could do and developing them from there.


While this was occurring, forums of discussion were emerging on a district and state level regarding the use of standards and applying them to Mathematics.


The advent of the new HSC saw performance standards introduced for the first time, while the rigor of syllabus content was maintained, if not increased. There is still debate as to whether the best starting point may have been in at the start of stage 4 and allowed time for the K � 10 review to be implemented.








The question of numeracy and the standards students get to while at school has been around for many years and has been hotly debated throughout the past 5 years and now perhaps more so than ever before. We are witnessing both State and Federal Governments acknowledging the need for not only a literate society but also a numerate one.


We are seeing the emergence of many schemes and programs designed to not only increase the numeracy level of students but to also change the culture of the classroom teacher to ensure this increased level comes about.


It is essential that if any program is to produce results, all participants have to be committed to the plan. For this reason planning and implementing numeracy strategy across a school is a difficult, time consuming and protracted task.


In the case of Coomealla High we have entered the second of a five-year plan to see numeracy incorporated across the curriculum offered in the school.


Planning began before this period and during the planning and implementation within the Maths KLA, the introduction of schemes such as Count Me in Too and Counting On has emerged. For any plan to be successful staff have to be aware of current trends and be trained in new programs as they arise. A great deal of cooperation has to exist between the major stake holders � primary schools, secondary schools and district consultants in conjunction with parents and the students themselves as it is critical for success that students feel they have ownership of their learning.


A key consideration being


Everyone is capable of learning but


Not everybody learns on the same day, in the same way


needs to be adopted and acted upon by these stakeholders.


In deciding the best delivery method or methods of numeracy across the curriculum throughout all stages of education in NSW (K � 1 in this case) it is important to establish a working definition of numeracy not only in NSW schools but across Australia as this issue is larger than one school, district or state, in fact more and more research is emerging on a global perspective.


What is Numeracy ?


The term numeracy first came to light in 15 when the writers of the Crowther Report stated that numeracy dealt with a mirror image of literacy (and for me these two words or concepts have always been intrinsically linked ). On one hand it is observation, hypothesis, experimentation and verification and on the other hand it is quantitative.


So the Crowther Report regarded numeracy as encompassing met cognitive frameworks in the same way as literacy does.





Since then there has been, and still are, many differences in the way people perceive and define numeracy. Some notions that have been put forward are Mathematical Literacy ( by the National Research Council18 and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 18) ,Quantitative Literacy ( Dossey 17 and Forman 17 ), Mathematical Skills ( Marks & Ainley 17 ), Critical Numeracy ( Yasukawa, Johnston & Yates ), Statistical Literacy ( Watson 15 ), and critical mathematics ( Frankenstein 187 )


Each of these aspects has had ramifications in the ways policy makers and educators have made decisions for the development of numeracy in students.


Willis ( in 18 ) found these concepts to be incomplete as they emphasise either mathematical concepts, procedures and skills or practical tasks / social goals students should be able to meet or generic and strategic processes students need to know.


At the very least, Willis says, being numerate is about having the competence and disposition to use mathematics to meet the general demands of life at home, in paid work, and for participation in community and civic life.





There are differing concepts between the states as to the meaning of numeracy.


In Tasmania


Numeracy is focussed on the intelligent use of mathematical knowledge (knowledge of number, space and shape, measurement calculation and chance and data ) to other school studies and practical contexts in everyday life.


In Queensland


Queensland ran a Supporting Literacy and Numeracy in Queensland Schools from 18 to 1 as a joint Commonwealth, State and Catholic Education initiative. Materials based around Number, Space, Measurement and Data and common learning strategies in each.


In Victoria


Victoria has seen the development of the early Years Numeracy Program, centred around teacher professional development with the principal components being a structures classroom program, provision of additional assistance, parent participation and staff development.


In Western Australia


The First Steps Program aims to improve mathematics learning in lower and upper primary school years particularly those at risk.


In the Northern Territory


There is a strong focus on numeracy in the early years of schooling through school entry assessment, teacher professional development and programs for parents and the community. From 000 a system wide strategy for early intervention has been operating.


In South Australia


The major initiative is an Early years of Schooling project in support of the National Literacy and Numeracy Professional Development Program





In NSW


The Count Me in Too program began operating in 00 schools in 18. The aim of this program is to improve the outcomes of instruction in the early years of school ( K � ) by providing teachers with support in using ‘learning frameworks’ to assess students’ strategies in counting and number. This project has been supported by the introduction of the Counting On program in to upper primary and early secondary in what could be described as the middle school years.


It is evident that since 18, numeracy programs are being linked to systemic assessment of student achievement and linked to nationally agreed to strategies ( the Adelaide agreement ) and the state programs that have been implemented have a common thread in that they clearly focus on early number and counting strategies.


Numeracy for Indigenous People


The introduction of new syllabuses in K � 10 in Mathematics by 00 and the emphasis being placed on outcomes based assessment with the introduction of standards references provides a unique opportunity for Mathematics KLA’s to revisit their philosophies and pedagogy.


Catering for indigenous students has been an area that has been lacking over the years. This is based on my personal experiences and the realisation that in my own teaching this is an area that has been sadly lacking. This can be attributed to a number of factors including �


q Not wanting to go outside my comfort zone


q A lack of knowledge in catering for these students


q Little available research into indigenous education except for the past five years


Poorer outcomes, both educationally and socially can be attributed to inappropriate curricula, pedagogical practices, lower attendance rates, socio-economic factors and past experiences by parents / caregivers.


An understanding of the basis of indigenous culture is vital as an underlying lynchpin in the provision of literacy and numeracy experiences to these students. Indeed low attainment in foundational skills such as these significantly contributes to lower overall achievement, non � engagement, poorer attendance and lower retention levels. Numeracy skills allow students to participate successfully in school and beyond � training opportunities and by the provision of skills for them to become role models in their communities.


The provision of culturally inclusive teaching programs and pedagogy and delivered in a manner that accounts for the diversity of student backgrounds and starting points, combines with the use of alternative assessment tools ( eg formative assessment ), will see the achievement of Aboriginal students improve significantly.


The challenge is to bring this new pedagogy into being as the are limitations to ways in which a syllabus will challenge the long � established pedagogical practices of many teachers � particularly mathematics which has been seen to be largely culture and value free.


The Adelaide declaration of 1 states that all students should have


… attained the skills of numeracy and English literacy; such that, every student should be numerate, able to read, write, spell and communicate at an appropriate level.


DEETYA goes on to formulate a definition of numeracy that incorporate the disposition to use a combination of underpinning mathematical concepts and skills from the across the mathematics discipline (numerical, spatial, graphical, statistical and algebraic ).


The National Indigenous English Literacy and Numeracy Strategy 00 � 004 identifies six key elements, based on programs that were found to improve educational outcomes for aboriginal students. These areas have been targeted through extra funding and relate to


q Increasing attendance rates to the national level


q Addressing effectively health needs


q Providing pre � school options


q Training teachers in the skills and cultural awareness necessary for them to be effective in indigenous communities


q Ensuring an effective pedagogy is implemented


q Have transparent, achievable measures of success for schools and teachers as a basis of accountability


Research indicates, and these areas will be adopted as a new starting point at Coomealla High, that the key issues critical to numeracy skill development in Aboriginal students include


q Supporting a learner � centred curriculum


q Scope and sequence of learning outcomes


q Equity issues


q Teaching strategies


q Assessment


q Implementation and evaluation


Actions that will be taken to implement these recommendations include


q Teachers becoming more aware of the cultural and social contexts in which aboriginal students learn mathematics


q Exploration and use of particular contexts, especially numeracy ones, for aboriginal students in classes


q Identifying particular needs and learning styles of aboriginal students


q Reflect and build on what works


q Maintain high expectations, a positive classroom climate and recognise student achievement


q An understanding of the Count Me In Too program and the Counting On program


q An understanding of the SNAP results for year 7 and 8 students and the adoption of strategies to improve performance across the cohort


q Classroom activities incorporate relevance to Indigenous students


q Provision of a gradual path of learning, with a lot of practice, ensuring that students have developed the confidence as well as the ability to perform at one level before progressing to the next (the meeting of outcomes) � combined with this is the realisation that students will meet these outcomes at different times and this needs to be catered for.


q Exposure to a range of tasks


q Group work of various kinds


q Explicit teaching, with the use of modelling with clearly defined tasks and expectations


q Assessment carried out in a supportive environment in which Indigenous students feel confident


q Assessment strategies developed in consultation with Indigenous education workers


q Results reported in a way that encourages parent / caregiver participation in student’s learning


The success of these strategies will ultimately be shown in the assessment of Indigenous students numeracy levels. State assessment takes place in year 7 and 8 ( stage 4) through SNAP testing , while in years ( and 10, the external school certificate exam can be used as a benchmark. At this stage though very few Indigenous student s get through to this level for a host of reasons, one being the lack of educational success in stage 4 and pressures from their peers and the wider community.


The use of explicit teaching, which refers to both the pedagogy and the establishment of mathematical connections, is the key to addressing a number of issues faced by Indigenous, and in fact all students.


Students who are ‘ naturally mathematically able’ make these connections for themselves and therefore view maths as making sense. ‘ Less mathematically able ’ students do not see the interrelationships and view Maths as a plethora of isolated facts. The latter group can be led to see these relationships through explicit teaching. (McRae et al, 000)


Numeracy for students with Special Needs


Students with special needs both physical and mental have the right to learn perhaps by different means to those used in a traditional classroom. The point that every student will learn just not on the same day in the same way is more pertinent here than in other areas.


The use of concrete materials and the understanding of teachers are paramount to the development and increase in the self-esteem of these children. Providing positive experiences develops the will to succeed and the preparedness for risk taking.


Planning for Numeracy across the school


To adequately plan for numeracy across the curriculum three areas needs to be addressed. What makes an effective teacher of numeracy, assessing the progress of students and proving adequate feedback in terms of reporting to the students and their parents / caregivers.


Research has shown that effective teachers of numeracy had a particular set of beliefs and understanding which underpinned their teaching practice.


Their beliefs related to


Ø What it meant to be numerate.


Ø The relationship between teaching and pupils’ learning of numeracy.


Ø Presentation and intervention strategies.


Effective teachers believed that being numerate requires ;


Ø Having a rich network of connections between different mathematical ideas.


Ø Being able to select and use strategies that are both effective and efficient.





Highly effective teachers believed that, in relation to pupils’ learning that


Ø Almost all students are able to become numerate ( I would argue that it is possible to have degrees of numerate behaviour and so all students are capable of reaching some level of numeracy. )


Ø Pupils develop required strategies and networks of ideas by being challenged to think through explaining, listening and problem solving.


In relation to teaching, effective teachers believed that


Ø Discussion of concepts and images is important in exemplifying the teacher’s network of knowledge and skills, and in revealing pupils’ thinking.


Ø It is their responsibility to proactively intervene to assist students to become more efficient in the use of calculating strategies.


It would be ideal if all teachers were to work collaboratively at numeracy across the curriculum. For some this will come easily (see appendix 1) and for other the concept will require a lot of time, effort and training.


As a starting point teachers could consider activities they are currently or about to use and analyse them for potential numeracy demands (see appendix )


This will provide a quick analysis of whether what they have planned provides sufficient opportunities for students to improve their fluency in familiar situations, to use their numeracy skills to adapt to new situations and to develop critical thinking skills.


The Mathematics teacher has a vital role to play in this planning. An essential part of their role is to develop their understanding of the nature of numeracy and use this understanding in dealing with student numeracy issues within the mathematics classroom ie they recognise when a numeracy issue arises, are able to diagnose the issue, and develop and implement strategies for improving each student’s response.


In the middle school setting, teachers have opportunities to use other areas to develop student outcomes in mathematics. The outcomes of the lesson/s or activities need to be considered very carefully as it is easy for the numeracy aspects to override the purpose in mind.


The Mathematics teacher can also act as a resource person for other staff members. For this to be effective, they need to familiarise themselves with the ways in which mathematics can be used to improve learning across the curriculum.


The role of parents and the community.


People in the community and hence parents still tend to view numeracy as a set of computational skills. Increasing community awareness of numeracy is important to the development of any school plan and seeing the improvement in individual students.


Parents play a major role in developing their children’s self esteem by providing positive reinforcement for tasks completed each day.


There are many parental based programs with interesting and stimulating activities that reinforce basic numeracy concepts as well as challenge children and parents to move to higher order thinking.


One of the best I have encountered is a Victorian Based Program called FAMPA (Family Maths Project Australia). Schools are able to subscribe to it and use the resource for parents wishing to help at home.


SNAP analysis


Year 7 001


Based on the results obtained for Coomealla High School, it becomes apparent that there is a weakness in some of the strands tested then combined to form an overall numeracy picture of a student.


It can be argued about the validity of such a test and the intention of individual schools to prepare students to undertake the assessment, combined with issues such as ethnic background and the allocation of special provisions but it still remains that as a standardising assessment tool, it is used by all students in year 7 and hence the educational analyses can be thought of as valid in terms of planning for the future.


Measurement can be seen to be the weakest of the strands and the implication here is for stage and 4 teachers to re-examine what outcomes they are trying to achieve and the means of achieving them.


The following table highlights school results compared to state results for each of the four bands, High, Proficient, Elementary and Low.


As can be seen from the examples of questions from each of the strands taken from the 001 SNAP paper, it is evident that this school and schools in general need to address the issues of numeracy and numerate students in the immediate future. (See appendix )


It is interesting to note that measurement seemed to be a weakness showing up in the Basic Skills Test done in 001.





Numeracy Percent Number Percent Measurement Percent Space Percent Data Percent Numeracy Problem Solving Percent


High Year 7 16 1785 5 14878 1666 17457 4 167


School 14 16 18 0 7 8 1 1 16 18 14 16





Proficient Year 7 057 40 15667 1 18 4 1617 4 1805 5 16 4


School 8 4 46 51 40 44 1 4 40 44





Elementary Year 7 165 5 1551 0 117 1045 0 160 5 1140


School 0 7 41 8 1 1 1 1 4 6





Low Year 7 01 4 446 5 84 6 486 5 081 6 007 4


School 8 6 7 10 1 1 1 1 10 11








The next tables show the analysis of the year 7 cohort 000 to the year 8 cohort 001. It is very difficult to place a lot of validity on the comparison as the year 7 results were from a pilot scheme introduced and factors such as question validity, marking consistency and implementation of all test provisions need to be considered in the overall result validity.


Year 7 000


Numeracy Percent Number Percent Measurement Percent Space Percent Data Percent Numeracy Problem Solving Percent


High Year 7 465 554 1 4770 1 57 4 40 4406


School 1 1 1 8 1 8 6 1 1 4





Proficient Year 7 6 41 507 645 41 56 4 565 6464 4


School 48 1 46 48 4 4 48





Elementary Year 7 506 80 5 48 1 484 8 6 4 475


School 1 18 15 11 16 18 7 1 7 10





Low Year 7 584 4 64 6 115 7 56 4 887 6 104 7


School 5 7 0 0 4 6 5 7











Year 8 001


Numeracy Percent Number Percent Measurement Percent Space Percent Data Percent Numeracy Problem Solving Percent


High Year 8 418 44 46 44 468 4 4506 40 551 47 4841 4


School 5 40 7 44 5 40 0 0 48 6 4





Proficient Year 8 4016 6 4 1 456 450 40 614 41 8


School 47 5 7 44 5 5 47





Elementary Year 8 04 18 57 1780 16 1876 17 164 17 1805 16


School 7 11 1 1 8 1 15 4 6





Low Year 8 5 4 404 4 45 400 4 70


School 1 1 0 0 1 5








It can be noted that there was significant improvement between year 7 and 8, except in the area of Space. While state percentages have increased in all strands, the results from Coomealla High School indicate that programs already in place are starting to work as the resultant increase in the High band has come from students in the Proficient band in year 7 improving to the next band in year 8. It is also pleasing to note the decline in percentages in the Elementary and Low bands.


A detailed graphical analysis of the year 7 001 results can be found in appendix . This analysis has been taken from the perspective of comparing boys to girls and indigenous to non-indigenous.


The general trend shows girls attaining a higher level than boys and although a very small representation of indigenous students was used, the trend is for non-indigenous students to perform better then the indigenous students.


The challenge for Coomealla High School is to use these results, look at what is currently done, refine and come up with a proposal that address these issues while increasing the number of students who could be classified as numerate.





Proposed Plan for Coomealla High School


Ensuring the physical and mental needs of students are catered for forms the basis of learning. For this reason it is proposed that initially all students in the maths KLA classes will be actively encouraged to sip water during lessons and have access to “brain food” � nuts and dried food � to nibble on during their lessons.


It is then proposed to lobby for the extension of this across the school.


The proposed plan is designed to cater for individual needs and fulfil system requirements with the content continuum ensuring students are provided with ongoing success up to stage 6 learning and post secondary studies.


Action By Whom When Anticipated Outcome Measures of Success


All Maths KLA staff trained in Counting On Head Teacher / G Stratford / LD Teacher / District Maths Consultant Term 1 Weeks - 4 All year 7 students using a common approachIdentification of Students with special needs Individual student progressSNAP Results


Seek funding for the continuation of the tutor program in year 7 Principal / Head Teacher Maths / CAP consultant Term 4 000 Increase in numeracy for students with an identified need Progressive assessment of students / SNAP 0 results


Training of tutors including AEAs in the Counting On program Head Teacher / G Stratford / LD Teacher / District Maths Consultant Term 1 Weeks - 4 Increase in numeracy for students with an identified need Individual student progressSNAP Results


Joint meetings with HSIE / Maths KLAs Head Teachers Maths / HSIE Term 1 Weeks � 4 Common understanding of approach and terminology Interaction in planning activitiesIncreased emphasis on numeracy as a base in activities


Using Technology in Activities Individual StaffComputer Coordinator / Librarian Terms 1 & Staff & Students using technology as a learning tool Increased use of the school’s intranet


Seek Aboriginal mentors to attend classes Aboriginal Education Unit Term 1 00 Increased acceptance of people in classrooms.Deeper understanding of cultural issues relating to indigenous people Increased attendance rates.


Combined meetings with Stage teachers Linkages Consultant Terms 1 & Understanding of Student Development in the Stage / 4 continuumHeightened awareness of benchmarking and the attainment of standards of achievement Feedback from meetings


Numeracy lesson incorporated into week teaching cycle Year 7 Maths teachers Awareness of numeracy based activitiesIdentification of students with individual needs both remedial and extension Common approach to identification of students in need Introduction of an extension program for applicable students


Aligned with this course of action it is proposed in the latter part of 00 to


q Continue to evolve the Maths KLA numeracy plan to ensure the needs of individual students are met.


q Continue to encourage tutors to expand their training by attending specialist session organised by the district Maths consultant.


q Implement an Extension program for students to be run in conjunction with the year 7 numeracy lesson.


q Continue to develop and expand the Training and Development program with the HSIE staff ( including History teachers )


q Development of a support program with the LD teacher to support students with special needs.


q Maintain and increase the link established with stage teachers to ensure a common understanding of the K � 10 continuums are reached.





In 00 and beyond


q All staff trained in Counting On strategies.


q Expansion of KLA training to embrace TAS, Science, and English.


q Support for the expansion of the middle school to see less teachers with classes in stage 4 education.


q Support for students to become involved in a program of interaction with Coomealla High to see stage and 4 students sharing common activities and teachers to achieve preset outcomes and standards.


q Increased Training and Development supplied by District Office personnel and utilisation of expertise with the staffs of primary and secondary schools.


Conclusion


The proposed course of action is one that cannot be separated from existing KLA practices and plans. To effectively cater for individual differences, teachers need to continually examine, assess, reassess and modify classroom practices as a normal part of their teaching.


What has been proposed is the modifications to what is happening at Coomealla High and the direction the school is taking based on research at a system, district and school level combined with anecdotal evidence and many many hours of discussion and conferencing.


For any plan to be implemented successfully, staff must take ownership of it and continually look for ways of improvement.


Everyone is capable of learning, just not on the same day, in the same way





Example of a numeracy activity


Topic Basic Addition


Rationale To identify students with addition concepts pre stage and post stage 4


Aim To ensure an understanding of the process of addition is reached by all students.


Concepts Introduced


· Place value to Hundreds.


· The use of a blank number line � used for other concepts in stage 4.


· Subtraction as an inverse operation of addition.


Terminology


· Addition, Total, Sum, All together, Add up


· Place value


· Number line as a counting technique


· Blank number line, Small jump, Middle jump, Large jump


Resources required


· Centicubes


· Multi based block


Outline of Lesson structure


Start with a simple example using explicit teaching techniques


4 +


Instruction - Locate 4 on the number line provided and place a small x then move small jumps to the right � it may be necessary for some to receive instruction in left from right, small from big


0 1 4 5 6 7 8


So the conclusion to be drawn is that 4 + = 7


Teachers can use this to start the process of backtracking


If I start at 7 and go back , where am I ?


So 7 � = 4.





Moving through different examples such as


7 + 5 using the same technique can lead a teacher to the point where a blank number line can be introduced and by initially Counting On by ones can lead to a successful outcome but also opens the door to teachers looking at more efficient ways with students. An appropriate support program put into place can assist students who require individual or small group help.


This approach lends itself to the introduction of meaningful terminology for students such as


Small jumps - one place


Medium jumps- 10 places


Large jumps - 100 places


Teachers have the opportunity to use aids such as multi based blocks although in general research has shown that teachers relying on concrete aids solely as a teaching method tend to produce lesser numeracy results than those who continually challenge students regardless of ability level shown and disabilities that may be evident.


A follow on for this activity is to ensure all students get to a comfortable level working with and digit numbers such as


1 + 10


1 + 4


67 + 8


568 + 17


Whilst these examples will seem trivial to many teachers, particularly those teaching more able students, it is essential that students demonstrate a clear understanding of the process they are using as this lays the foundation for future content areas and the degree of understanding required in order to shown numerate behaviours. Anecdotal evidence suggests that whilst a student may have a good grasp of the skill of addition, there are those who total lack understanding of the process because of methodologies used in prior learning both at school and at home.


Addition is the linchpin for many numeracy strands as it forms the basis of multiplication ( repeated addition ), subtraction ( addition in reverse ) and division ( repeated subtraction ). The process of addition also allows the area of place value to be explored in depth and this then leads to other number concepts such as decimals, fraction, percentages and ratio.





Appendix 1





Appendix


Examples from across the curriculum that may make numeracy demands on a student


While these are not taken from NSW curricula, they can be adapted to fit.


Early Years of Schooling Middle Years of Schooling Later Years of Schooling


The Arts Students drew a ‘bird’s eye’ view of a familiar setting Students designed and illustrated a page for a children’s picture book Students designed the sets and the lighting for a school drama production


English Students heard a story, which included the line ‘ they went about sinking twice as many ships’. They discussed with the teacher what this might mean and if it made sense. Students read a magazine article and had to summarise the main points. The article was about Australian eating habits and some of the information was presented in statistical form. Students examined media coverage of a minority group over a period of time, commenting on the patterns of representation, and the ways in which the group was represented


Health and Physical Education Students kept score in a game of basketball by counting the number of points scored rather than the number of baskets thrown Students studied the relationship between pulse rates and exercise. They designed an experiment that required them to measure and record results during and after vigorous exercise and while cooling down. They then summarised and presented the data Students chose a health issue and had to gather and analyse information about it. They then designed and promoted a health project based on their findings


LOTE Students tasted a variety of food from a culture being studied then talked about what they liked and why. Opinion were collected and students found ways to show this information Students collected information on travel within their state for students overseas and published the information in English and another language Students researched a social issue, presented a written report in the language studied.


Science Students grew some seedling making decisions about the size of containers, amount of soil and the type of fertiliser to be used. They measure and recorded growth at intervals in the growing process Students needed to make sense of the solar system and the universe. They were presented with a range of statistics such as light years, gravity, mass etc Students compared relative efficiencies in appliances in heating 500ml of water. They used a wattage / cost table to calculate the cost of each appliance


Society and Environment Students drew maps showing the routes they followed to come to school Students investigated the impact of white settlement on Aboriginal Australians. They designed their own plans of research, collected data and drew conclusions Students prepared a folio on different economic systems, including media coverage of them, developed criteria for selecting six of them and reported briefly on each


Technology and Enterprise Students designed and made a library bag A class designed and made a land yacht model with a sail area of 000 sq mm Students designed and made a piece of furniture





Bibliography


NSW Department of Education and Training


SA Department of Education


Tasmanian Department of Education


WA Department of Education


Queensland Department of Education


NT Department of Education


DEETYA


Planning for an Emphasis on Numeracy in the Curriculum, Ms Marian Kemp & Mr J Hogan, Murdock University 18/


Numeracy Assessment and Associated Issues, Dr Jan Lokan ACER, Mr Brian Doig ACER, MS Catherine Underwood ACER, 18/


Envisaging the Future � Our changing technological society demands and links between numeracy performance and life outcomes for employment, education and training, Assoc Prof Joy Cumming, Griffith University, 18/


Early Childhood Numeracy, Assoc Prof Bob Perry, University of Western Sydney, 18/


Numeracy Education What do we know and what can we learn from the literacy experience, Prof Peter Hill, University of Melbourne 18/


Supporting teachers to implement a numeracy agenda, Dr Janette Bobis, University of Sydney, 18/


Identification and evaluation of teaching and learning practices that enhance numeracy achievement, Dr max Stephens,, Education Consultant, 18/








Appendix 1





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