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Friday, July 29, 2011

Colors in The Scarlet Letter

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Nathaniel Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter is story about Hestor Prynne, a woman who


commits a sin and is filled with many feelings, including pride, surrounding that sin.


Many of those around Hestors sin reflect similar emotions and feelings. Hawthorne


employs many symbols throughout The Scarlet Letter. Hawthorne uses the colors red,


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black, and white to represent Hestors emotions and the emotions of those around her.


The most frequently employed color symbol by Hawthorne is red. Red most obviously


represents Hestors sin, as shown by her scarlet A she is forced to wear. Her scarlet


letter, like her sin, is something she must always deal with and is something she can


never escape. Pearl, the product of Hestors sin, is usually dressed in red clothing,


representing the sin. Pearl is also called the names Ruby, Coral, or red Rose, and a


little bird of scarlet plumage, further extending Pearl as a red representation of Hestors


sin. Red is employed by Hawthorne to show passion and sensuality. The sin is also


represented by the letter A being formed in the sky by meteors, and an A appearing


on Reverend Dimmesdales chest. The first encounter with red is the description of a wild


red rosebush growing outside the prison where Hestor was imprisoned. This is


representing Hestors pride and passion, growing in a place not fitting, similar to how


Hestors passion did not fit in with the Puritan society. As the sunlight shines through a


red and yellow window in the governors house, a red light shines throughout the room.


This is symbolizing Hestors passion spreading throughout the Puritan society.


Hawthorne also uses black and darkness as symbols throughout The Scarlet Letter. Black


is used to represent evil and hiding. Hawthorne calls the prison the black flower of


civilized society, meaning it is evil and a place concealing the truth. Frequently


Hawthorne makes references to darkness turning to light, suggesting darkness as a state


of hiding where the person will not accept lifes experiences and holds back. Pearls eyes


are called a small black mirror, meaning they are empty and filled with sin as they


reflect Hestors scarlet letter. Hawthorne explains black weeds growing from a sinners


grave as evil coming out and dying hope. The Puritans describe Satan as the Black Man


in the forest. Black is used to symbolize the worst and most evil part of an object or


person.


Hawthorne employs white and light to oppose darkness as a state of self- containment.


White most clearly symbolizes purity. Pearl, who has not committed any great sins nor


does she hold herself back from anything, is always portrayed with the light shining on


her. When Hestor removes her scarlet letter and faces her sin and pride, the sunlight


shines on her for the first time. The sunshine is used to express a moment of


enlightenment and change.


Hawthorne uses reds, darkness, and light, to express characters emotions and the state of


their spirit. Red is passion and sin. Darkness represents a poor state with self-denial, as


well as representing simply evil. Light symbolizes a state of enlightenment and a


refreshed spirit, as well as purity. The color symbols in The Scarlet Letter help to transfer


certain themes and ideas to the reader, as they are easily recognized and identified.


Hawthornes symbolism shows the simplest events of one person permeating throughout a


society.





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Military spending

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Even if they have never seen a gun, millions of children suffer from wars, as resources that could have been invested in development are diverted in armament. Armament spending has both positive and negative impacts on countries.


On the plus side, military spending can be a boon to some businesses, which in turn is a shot in the arm to the nation¡¦s economy as I¡¦ll explain later in the essay. On the other hand, there are negative effects on economy as well.


It is true that a large military spending will contribute to economic growth in a short term. Militarization will bring more job opportunities to citizens directly in both military and military-related fields. Meanwhile, the important part is that there is another high amount of secondary jobs has been given. For example, a new military uniform factory opened. It not only creates jobs for the people in the factory, but also creates jobs for the people working on the cotton field, even the people doing transportations. Furthermore, it increases the employment rate instantly and significantly.


Another positive side of a great military spending is that it will put a fuller use of existing productive capacities, and thus increasing output of goods and services.


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The most important reason to maintain a high military spending is that it will give a country higher national defense capability. It is obvious that the more money government spends on the army, better weapons will be made. It will protect people better as far as the homeland security is concerted. People will live in a safer condition, and not to worry about their family while they are working. Thus, they will put more efforts in their work because they¡¦re satisfied of their primarily safety. Hopefully, this will bring a better production to nation¡¦s economy.


Other than the defense, military also plays an important role on countries¡¦ emergencies. Because the money that government spends on military is enough to train soldiers, they can protect civilians¡¦ lives from natural disaster. For example, when a country is facing flood, at the first place, the army could bring enough well-trained soldiers to build a bridge and help people get out the danger.


Even though there seems to be many reasons to believe that higher military spending will bring a better life to people in a short term, the long run of high defense spending may impede growth and development.


First, high military expenditure tends to decrease an economy¡¦s capacity to meet people¡¦s basic needs, such as food, housing, and medical services. This is because increased military production leaves less national capital and financial institutions for the civilian sector of the economy. In addition, some government cares less about the life of their citizens than how to make the strongest weapons. It¡¦s possible to observe that developing countries, despite their lower incomes, tens to spend a similar and sometime larger share of their gross domestic product (GDP) on armed forces and weaponry than do wealthy developed countries. One of the examples will be North Korea, the government spends % of their GDP on armaments, rather than try to stimulate their economy, and give their civilians basic food and clothing.


Another main disadvantage of high spending is that it leaves less money in the government budget for them to dealing with social, environmental and other developmental issues. According to a recent report from the United States, their federal government spends approximately USD $1. trillion in Fiscal Year 00. Out of all this spending, Pentagon spending now accounts for over half (50.5percent) of all discretionary spending USD $4. billions. In the same year, the U.S. government only spends USD $45 billions on education and USD $0 billions on social services. This translates to smaller social surety checks, less medical coverage, perhaps a third of country¡¦s population doing without health insurance entirely, fewer scholarships and less aid overall for education, especially higher education for the poor people. With all the money spends on the national defense, the government could build three more sets of highway, many more hospitals and YMCAs. In additional, the government could spend money on environmental projects, help economic development, or even on agriculture. All of these will help people to improve their standard of living.


Militarization also hinders an economy¡¦s efficiency, because a lack of competition. Since large amount of military spending creates lots jobs and productions, it becomes the main sources of income. But the military sector often allows military producers to feel less compelled to cut their production costs since they are paid by the government. Therefore, after a period of time, higher average production costs will depress the economy significantly. Meanwhile, it will hurt people¡¦s life due to the high price and low quality.


As for the additional employment allegedly provided by the military sector, this is only a short-term effect ¡§military production tends to use proportionately more capital equipment and less labor than civilian industries and so creates fewer jobs than could be created from a similar investment in civilian production, particularly services.¡¨ From a recent research, people find that USD $1 billion spend by the Pentagon on weapons, supplies and services generates 5,000 jobs. However, the same USD $1 billion would create 0,000 mass transit jobs, 6,000 housing jobs, 41,000 education jobs, and 47,000 health care jobs. (Pentagon Spending)


Another important factor is that there is no end line for the military spending. It would be contradictory to continue building the military arsenal while at the same time paying the high cost of destroying the old weapons. For example, to destroy chemical weapons costs about 10 times more than it does to produce them.


In the fiscal year 00, the U.S. government spends USD $4 billions on the department of defense. Meanwhile, there is a hidden number. In the same year, the government spends USD $00 billions more on military-related fields, such as foreign military aid, military retirement pay, and veterans¡¦ benefits. It¡¦s obvious that the economy will be unbalanced after a short period of time, since most money is given to people with high ranks rather the people who imperatively need them.


While putting billions dollars in the army, the mean usage of this money is not necessary for defense, but for offense- developing new weapons. Even just developing, testing, and assembling thing like unclear and biochemical weapons is dangerous, generating huge numbers of fatalities, cancers and injuries- even if the weapons are never once used in anger. As people concerted about their lives, there won¡¦t be any positive effects on the economy, because people tend to escape rather than produce.


It is clear that reducing military spending will affect civilian¡¦s life more in those exporting countries such as the United States, England, and France since countries selling their old weapons make them great revenues.


�º http//www.alaskjournal.com/stories/11110/loc_001111001.shtml, Alaska Journal of Commerce Military Spending set on increase.


�º http//www.cdi.org/issues/budget/transformation-stalls-pr.cfm, Bush Budget Stalls Military Transformation.


�º http//www.cdi.org/missile-defense/nunn-mccurdy.cfm, Missile Defense.


�º http//www.cdi.org/polling/5-foreign-aid.cfm, Economic Aid, Military Aid, or Neither.


�º http//www.cdi.org/products/almanac010.pdf, CDI ALMANAC 001-00.


�º http//www.clw.org/milspend/whycut.html, Why the military budget should be cut.


�º http//www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/ArmsTrade/Spending.asp?Print=True, Arms Trade¡Xa major cause of suffering, high military expenditure in some places.


�º http//www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR111/MR111.ch1.pdf, Defining the Problem.


�º http//www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Pentagon_military/TopMilitarySoendMyths_CDI.html, Top Seven Claims Why We Need to Increase Military Spending, and why they are wrong.


�º http//www.unicef.org/sowc6/8military.html, Military expenditure¡Xthe opportunity cost.


�º http//www.worldbank.org/depweb/beyond.pdf, Demilitarization of Economies.


Please note that this sample paper on Military spending is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Military spending, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on Military spending will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Thursday, July 28, 2011

advertising

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Advertising


Advertising is a message designed to promote or sell a product, a service, or an idea.


As rapid globalization continues to produce highly diversified social values and a wide variety of media, the role and function of advertising must be highly mined. In this era of change in consumer awareness and consumption patterns, advertisers must develop efficient communication activities. Advertising reaches people through varied types of mass communication, through radio, reading and the biggest area is through television.


Television reaches all tops audiences. This is why companies and corporations use it to their advantage, promoting a certain product. Advertising is a multibillion-pound industry and in many businesses, sales volume depends on the amount of advertising done. Manufacturers try to persuade people to buy their products. Business firms use advertising to promote an image for their company. Businesses use advertising to gain new customers and increase sales. This is why television can be the most efficient advertising medium, as we, the audience is influenced through slogans and catch phrases that are part of the language. It has given us jingles that are very familiar and some lasting images that we will always associate with that particular product. These effects have to be influential, as it is demanding to tell a compelling story in a short space of time.


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Different adverts are shown at different times and at the peak viewing times, when TV audiences are highest. However minority audiences are also targeted, those with certain interests, who could be influenced by certain goods.


Through analysing advertisements on television, I have noticed how they are shown several times in a short space of time and how a certain slogan or tune is repeated constantly in one advertisement. I have found myself humming the certain tune and thinking of the product being advertised, and in many cases this has been as irritating cycle. However, it is a successful means of influencing people to buy something that they do not necessarily need. Advertising is a cunning, yet booming business and uses a mass number of techniques to promote their goods.


Advertising promotes more than mere products in our popular culture. Because images used in advertising are often idealised, they eventually set the standard which we in turn feel we must live up to. Advertisements serve to show us what the ideal image is, and further tell us how to obtain it. Advertisers essentially have the power to promote positive images or negative images. Unfortunately, most of the roles portrayed by women tend to fit the latter description. It is easy to understand the appeal which these ads hold for men, as they place women in an inferior role; one characterised by helplessness, fragility and vulnerability. Certainly one can not deny that visual images serve to create the ideal female beauty within the material realm of consumer culture. The problem is that if one strays from this ideal, there is the risk of not being accepted by men. Women portrayed in sexual ads are depicted as objects and commodities, to be consumed by men for visual pleasure and by women for self-definition. Any depiction of a woman in scant clothing ultimately makes her look vulnerable and powerless, especially when placed next to a physically stronger man. Studies show that advertisements will concentrate primarily on a womans body parts rather than her facial expressions. Men enjoy these images, and sadly, women tend to try to embody them, regardless of the extent to which they degrade themselves.


The picture before me, illustrated in “Avantaje” magazine, 00, has a girl that I think is trying to be very seductive because of the way that she is moving in a somewhat suave like way. She is also standing in front of a red background, which is a very sexy, seductive colour. Her lipstick is red, her nail polish, her under-eye-shadow, the beads around her, and the perfume bottle itself also are the colour red. It also appears that this girl is wearing a piece of lingerie that is black, which is also very sexy and seductive; also her hair is black, maybe to match her outfit, and is very wild and spontaneous.


From what I see when I look at this picture I think that this advertisement is specifically targeted towards the female and might be telling them that if they buy this product that they will look very seductive as does the girl in the advertisement. It could be putting out the image that if the buyer purchases this product you will be more attractive and more guys will respond to you when you want them to. Or it might be saying that using this fragrance will make you feel great in this type of clothing and your significant other will be at your ankles, wanting you. Another way to look at this picture is in a guys perspective. If a guy saw this advertisement he might be tempted to buy this product because he thinks that it will make his girlfriend want to be more sexy and seductive. He might think that if she wears this perfume she will want to be more active in their love life and will wear little clothes like the girl has on in the picture.


It took me forever to pick out a particular magazine, because of the multitude of womens magazines out there today. I finally decided on Cosmopolitan, because I realized that there really wasnt any difference between any of the womens magazines. Every magazine has a woman on the cover, seemingly perfect, and with a huge smile on her face to boot. Then, also on the cover, I get to see all the articles in the magazine that are going to help me to look better, feel better, and even make my man happier (as if I dont have enough to worry about already). When women look at the cover of Cosmopolitan, they are made to feel inferior to the woman on the cover. They feel inferior because the women on the cover is flawless, seemingly perfect in every way. Women wonder how they can compete with that. Women say to themselves, I wish I could look like her. The cover illustrates to them they are nothing like this woman on the cover, and so they must buy the magazine. The magazines articles give the reader hope that this wish may come true if the articles are read. So in the end, most women buy the magazine. As if the cover wasnt enough, women have to stream through the endless articles of perfume, make-up, and clothing containing the same type of woman that is on the cover . These ads


work in the same way as cover to get you to buy their product. It seems like every other page is a different advertisement urging us to buy, buy, buy.


First, I think that Cosmopolitan’s major claim is that they know how to make women look better, and feel better about themselves. Cosmopolitan appeals to its readers by assuming all women feel they have flaws. When these women look at the cover of Cosmopolitan and see a perfect looking woman, and they want to look like that as well. When they see all the articles available in the magazine to help them be like the cover girl, they buy the magazine. A wide range of women read Cosmopolitan (ages 18-45 approximately), so it is easy to market this magazine with its articles on how to get a man, look glamorous, be healthy, and so on. Society pressures women, more than men, to feel that they have to maintain a certain image. The majority of women feel that they need help reinventing themselves into cover girls, and thats where magazines like Cosmopolitan come into play. Women are made to feel if they arent thin, have good hair, and perfect skin, its hopeless for them. Women feel that if they can get help from a magazine, they wont have to go to pay for plastic surgery, or get a personal trainer. All the solutions are right there in front of them for the low cost of 5000 lei, and they can become a new woman right there in the comfort of their own houses. Advertisers in fashion magazines thrive on the fact that women constantly criticize their bodies. By showing actresses and models in fabulous dresses and looking very pretty and skinny, the magazines invite you to find flaws with your body, but then tell you that it’s okay because they have a way to fix it. You can tell a lot about our culture from looking at fashion magazines and the ads they contain. So why do we continue to buy these magazines? Because most people are not satisfied with their looks and we probably never will be.


One particular advertisement in Cosmopolitan has to deal with a Ralph Lauren perfume ad. This ad shows a young, white woman who appears very confident. She is looking directly into the camera with the attitude that she is in total control of everything. She has a young, white man, whose face we cannot see, kissing her forehead. The young woman in the ad seems as if she doesnt even notice the man kissing her. She appears as though being kissed is so routine to her that it isnt even that big of a deal anymore. She knows she will always have a man there to kiss her, and this is partly because her use of Ralph Laurens new perfume. The ad gives the impression the young woman would have no man kissing her if it wasnt for her new perfume. The ad illustrates women need a man to be satisfied. It shows not only does she need the perfume to feel confident, but also the man kissing her. The ad is obviously directed towards younger females. This ad says by wearing Ralph Laurens new perfume, men will become attracted to you, and you will be more confident.


There is another perfume ad in Cosmopolitan in which almost the exact same message is relayed to the reader. The ad is for the new perfume Lucky You. The depicts a cute guy sitting at a table, having a milkshake. He is obviously distracted by a young woman with blue eyes and long blonde hair. The man is not distracted by her looks, but her cleavage. She is wearing a shirt, tied up just below her breasts and revealing quite a fair share of cleavage, which is right in the guys face. While the man is looking directly at her breasts, the woman is looking directly into the camera, while eating the cherry off the top of the mans milkshake. Located at the top of the ad are the words, Get Lucky! This ad clearly illustrates to consumers (men and women) if they buy and wear Lucky You perfume, they are sure to get lucky with someone good looking of the opposite sex. . This usually works with consumers in their teens and early twenties because sex is always on their minds. When we take a look at this ad, we just want to go out and get lucky (that can be taken literally or figuratively).


Recently I read FHM ( For Him Magazine ) magazine and one ad in it caught my eyes. It was an ad for cognac and two whole pages were emphasized by various colours. Even though I am not usually interested in alcohol beverages, this ad attracted me. The reason it attracted me is that advertisers use certain techniques to persuade people. This ad fills a social need ; it appeals to people’s fun and pleasure, and uses gimmicks that are called ‘snob appeal’ and ‘appeal to excellence’. For these reasons I was interested in the ad. This is a commercial for Courvoisier Cognac. It looks like some place in Europe, a garden in the 18th Century. They are having some picnic in the garden with delicious looking fruits and two bottles of cognac. All the items used in this picture have specialized characters, which represent name of this cognac, “Courvoisier”. The colours of the whole picture are very rich and splendid. And the three women in this picture are wearing fashionable make - up on their faces. There is no effective language in this advertisement except the name of the cognac, Courvoisier. This advertisement tries to have classical looks, and it added modern styles on it. As a result it has very unique style of images. Moreover, the main colour over two whole pages, is dark red, which is an outgoing colour by itself, but when it can combine with gold, then it looks very rich and royal. This picture also tries to express just looking like an oil painting, and the three women in this picture act in an excessive way like a play. So in this ad it makes me want this Cognac, although it is not an essential thing for one’s life, but the people in this ad are wearing luxury dresses and accessories. And they seem to be relaxed and enjoying their lives. It emphasizes that if you buy this one, you can belong to their higher social class. Therefore, people desire to have it for fulfilling social needs. Advertisers in this ad also use emotions for fun and pleasure. This is one of the ways that can appeal to emotion of consumers. It can arouse feelings of fear, love, pleasure, or vanity. The atmosphere in this ad is very enjoyable. It doesn’t look like they have any worries or angers at all. It can tempt one to buy this product just to be as the ad says.


Moreover, the ad influences people to think about their social rank. In this ad, people are having classy picnics, in a garden that looks like it belongs to very rich people. All these luxurious things persuade people to buy this Cognac.


In this ad many things are used to make people pay attention to it. Luxurious materials and the people that seem to enjoy all those things make consumers want to buy this drink because not many people live a life as seen in the ad.


In conclusion, magazines and advertisements know what people want and thats how they sell themselves. Of course, most people dont pay any attention to the ads in the magazines they read. I think ads are made to somehow work on your sub conscience. We may not think were giving any of our attention to the ads, but when we are out shopping well notice products from certain ads. And more than likely gravitate more towards those products rather than products we have never seen or heard of. We see ads in magazines and TV commercials almost everyday. This repetition plants a picture in our minds, so when we go shopping we think of the product happens to be. I dont think this will ever change, because we will always read magazines and watch TV, and they will always have a multitude of ads to show us. The more money a company has, the more it can spend on advertising, and the more money it will make.


The impact of advertising on our society is a fiercely debated topic and has been, since the conception of advertising in its most basic form. There are negative and positive impacts upon society, both socially and economically, from advertising in its various forms. For instance, advertising promoting public welfare has a positive social impact upon society, whereas advertising portraying women as sex objects has negative social impacts. There are also positive economic impacts on society such as providing funding for the media and stimulating an active, competitive economy.


There are a number of proven ways to persuade the consumer that he or she needs the product being advertised. These methods of persuasion, instead of concentrating on the actual product, usually concentrate on the benefits that will be brought to the consumer. These benefits may include the hope of more money and better jobs, popularity and personal prestige, praise from others, more comfort, social advancement, improved appearance, or better health. For example, an automobile advertisement, as well as mentioning the mechanical attributes of the car, would most likely focus on the excitement, prestige and social advancement it may bring the buyer. This social advancement is very often sexual, or involving attraction of the other sex� so the car advertisement may also mention the glamorous women/men that the consumer will attract with his/her fancy car. Advertisers sell images and NOT products. When buying a product the consumer instantly thinks of the advertisement tied in with it. Gestures and symbols are very important in advertisements because they are the core meaning. Appeals and environment are also particularly important because they are the base on how to draw the public into buying the product.


Advertising has been blamed for a great variety of negative social impacts. One of the major criticisms received by advertising is that it forces people to buy things they dont really need, often by projecting negative emotions such as fear, anxiety or guilt upon the consumer. It is claimed that advertising plays with our basic human emotions and takes advantage of them, using them as merely another technique to sell goods or services. Advertising also encourages people to buy products by making them think that purchasing and consuming are the major activities of their lives. It is said to also evoke fears of inferiority upon the consumer by depicting the ‘normal person as young, attractive, wealthy and successful. This may encourage a person to act on his or her desire for success and, for instance, go out and purchase that particular brand of make-up or perfume hoping to emulate the seeming success of the person depicted in the advertisement.


In opposition, advertisers state that the public is intelligent enough to, and quite capable of, making up its own mind and will definitely not buy anything they dont want or need. People are not inclined to be swayed by false claims that they need a particular product, and will usually be very discriminating in what they take as being true, when it comes to advertising. In fact, advertisers would say that there are many positive social impacts on our society from advertising. Advertising can be used to increase awareness in society about particular issues, and in so doing, becomes a form of education. Anti- drug advertising such as Its ok to say NO, is just an example of how society uses the advertising industry as a means to promote public welfare.


As well as social benefits, there are economic benefits experienced by society, as a result of advertising. Without advertising, the media, including newspaper, television, radio, etc, would be much less vigorous. Advertising provides revenue for commercial mediums that would otherwise need to be funded by the actual consumer of these mediums. For example, a newspaper would cost up to three times as much (since advertising provides two thirds of the revenue of the print media), or all television would be pay-TV (since nearly all revenue for television is provided by advertising, while the consumer provides no financial support except for providing the service of watching the advertising messages). So we can see a major economic infrastructure based around advertising, in which the big companies fund and subsidize the commercial media by way of advertising. The price a consumer may have to pay to receive very cheap, or even free news and entertainment may include sitting through a 0 second advertisement break while watching a prime-time television program, or flicking a couple of extra pages in a magazine to move through the advertisements to get to the articles. Advertising is so important because it is extremely difficult and impractical to attempt to bill the consumer directly.


Some may argue that the economic drawback of advertising in our society is that it raises the price of goods and services. The basis of this argument is that, while companies subsidize the mass media with advertising, we, the consumer, subsidize advertising by paying a grossly increased price for heavily advertised goods and services. For instance, a soap costs under 1.000 to produce, but the consumer might pay around 0.000 lei. A large proportion of the difference obviously supports the heavy advertising television and print media campaigns. In response to this argument, it can be said that advertising stimulates a much more active economy, with vigorous competition between institutions, and higher buying rates of products that leads to lower product costs for the consumer anyway.


The effects upon society brought about by advertising come in mixed forms, depending on the purpose and execution of various campaigns. However, society as we know it is based very heavily upon advertising, and the negative social and economic impacts is not serious enough to outweigh the many positive social and economic effects on our society.





Please note that this sample paper on advertising is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on advertising, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on advertising will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Tuesday, July 26, 2011

Factors that impede the tight integration between business strategy and Human Resource strategies in the hospitality industry.

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Factors that impede the tight integration between business strategy and Human Resource strategies in the hospitality industry.


The integration of corporate and human resource strategy is one of the much-debated topics within the concept of strategic human resource management.


Truss and Gratton (14) describe strategic human resource management as the linking of HRM (Human Resource Management) with strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance and develop organizational cultures that foster innovation and flexibility. Thus, Strategic HR means integrating the HR function of an organisation with the companys strategy through HR activities such as recruitment, selection, training and rewards and any other HR activities specific to the hospitality organisation.


The necessity of this integration is demonstrated by Miles and Snow (14) who suggest that, without human resource strategies and policies linked into strategic business objectives, high levels of organisational performance are not likely.


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There are, however a number of problems that arise in the process of this integration both within the concepts demonstrated by Hoque (1) as internal fit and external fit.External fit being the HR strategy meshed with the business strategy such that there should be a consistency between the values and aims within each. Internal fit therefore refering to


the introduction of HRM as an institutionally supported package of practices that cohere with and mutually reinforce each other i.e. employee policies, commitment, flexibility and quality of work.


It is to be argued that one of the main barriers to the successful integration of business and human resource strategy is the lack of commitment and understanding of management (both corporate and line management) to the cause of HRM integration.


Dyer and Holder (188) adopt the stance that top management is probably the most powerful force that can work against the adoption of HRM iniatives.


Whilst Kane (1) takes the view that, top management take a short-termist perspective on HRM because they believe that evidence of HRM having a long-term and positive impact on individual or organisation level performance is sketchy.


Kane goes on to report on the possible reason for senior and middle managers negative perspective on the value of HRM could also be attributed to their inability to establish tangible elements and positive outcomes directly linked to HRM therefore their commitment deviates or becomes non-existent.


Hoque, Ks (1) research into UK hotels indicates poor practice and a lack of interest in HRM among managers in the hotel industry.


Whilst, Tyson (17) portrays the attitude of line managers towards human resource activities as one of the key organisational features for successful HRM.


Due to management at a “floor” level being at the source of HRM in terms of its implementation at an operational level, line managers can been viewed as a major barrier to impede the integration of corporate and HR strategies.


It is therefore suggested that if the integration is to be achieved to its utmost potential, management on all levels must realise the effectiveness of HRM policies and procedures and how to sucessfully immplement them into the organisation.


Taking all this information into account, the research undertaken by Hoque (1) into Human Resource Management and Performance in the UK Hotel Industry, takes a different stance suggesting that for corporate management to impede the integration of strategies, it is done so indirectly through taking a focus [within the business strategy] on cost reduction or on price factors [which] leads to sup-optimal performance within the industry.


Thus illustrating that corporate management should ideally emphasise an opposite quality- enhancer method with regard to service and the product in question.


Schuler and Jackson (187) reinforce this issue by arguing organisations that have a quality enhancement or innovation approach within its business strategy will make effective use of HRM. Thus leading to suggest that if the organisation has to priortise cost reduction within its strategy, the logical approach to deal with the issue would be to emphasise numerical flexibility and cost control.


However, this deviation does not fully resolve the situation as, if cost reduction is priortised within the business strategy, it could potentially upset policies and procedures that have been instilled by the HR Department.


These policies and procedures will be discussed later in the essay.


Hoque (1) also puts forward the view that HRM practices implemented in a seemingly piecemeal and uncoordinated fashion have fewer benefits, which is true of practices in any hospitality department.


In order for said practices to be otherwise strategically implemented in a fashion relevant to the firm, a functioning, effective, well supported Human Resource Department must be in place. This point being relevant to any organisation which wishes to advance its performance through the aims and objectives outlined in its business strategy.


The level at which HR staff are proactive/reactive to their role within their department can also be foreseen as a major contributing factor to the integration of the aformentioned strategies.


The view that staff within HR departments, are lacking knowledge in their field, are poorly trained and most importantly have an overall ineffective presence in terms of tangible results, is one held widely throughout not only the hospitality industry, but across many other industries. As Kane, Crawford and Grants (1) research shows, there is a general agreement that they [HR managers] lack the knowledge, skills, influence, credibility and perspective on their roles to implement a strategic approach to HRM.(MORE THAN ONE QUOTE!!!)


It is therefore vital that the Human Resource department takes a proactive approach to their roles within strategic plans and subsequent activities undertaken, as Tyson, S (DATE) suggests, strategic HRM will not occur unless the human resource professional takes steps to make it happen.


In terms of HRM the HR department is the first point of contact in a hospitality establishment for employees and line managers. If the knowledge of the staff in the HR department is sub-standard, the information, policies and procedures that are passed onto managers/employees could be of comparable relevance. This potentially may lead to the integration between the two strategies being even further impeded.


Therefore the HR department must not only possess the basic skills of Human Resource management, but also realise the individual features of the business strategy the company is adopting, how the strategies support each other and their role to support the fit between the two. Through this, the department can then adopt its policies and procedures to suit, but can also recruit, select, train and reward employees according to a set strategy.


HR staff therefore need to be able to realise the importance of their actions and how it impacts on the integration of the business and HR strategy.


If their signifiance to the strategy is realised and the support given from management is forth-coming and effective, the “fit” between strategies potentially can be achieved to a greater degree.


The previous factors of management commitment to the integration between business and HR strategies and the relevance of HR staff have both been shown to be of significant importance when integrating strategies.


However, the current state and perception of HR as a concept and its relevance to the hospitality industry, is a factor that if not shown to demonstrate its relevance, may have further detramential effects on the aforementioned elements.


Price (14) enforces this statement by arguing that practices in the hotel industry were so far removed from both the personnel and industrial relations and the human resource management ideal types, that neither model should be used to inform research on the [hotel] industry.


Whilst this representing one end of the spectrum, the relevance of Human Resources to the hospitality industry is a widely debated and much critisised one.


This factor is of significant importance when linking back to the previous areas of management and the HR department. Management have already been shown by Kane and Crawford (1) to need tangible and positive outcomes to comprehend and support the incorporation of a HR strategy whilst also realising the potential it has to work positively and help make strategic, informed decisions for the organisation.


Kane and Crawford (1) state that, there is considerable agreement about the lack of proven knowledge and the difficulty in quantifying the results of HRM, thus not supplying the essential tangible results.


The acknowledgement of opinions by managers/employees in hospitalitycould lead to possible cynicism from managers/employees in hospitality when required to adhere to policies and/or procedures set by the HR department.


Sisson (1) reports findings of only fragments of HRM being found in his study of UK hotels, this in uxtaposition with Lucass (15) view there is sparse evidence to be found of any UK hotels that have taken HR “seriously onboard”, lead the reader to a fairly poor outlook on the current state of HRM in the hospitality industry.


It is therefore made all the more clear that in order for HR departments to effectively integrate with businesss strategy, they need to have clearly defined policies and procedures to lead tothe tangible results when dealing with an organisations personnel. Legge (15) suggests the soft approach involving encouraging motivation, development and commitment. This methods main emphasis is on developing a workforce that is innovative and of a valued resource to the company therefore emphasising self-development.


Hoteliers such as Malmaison and the Hilton (REFs www) group can be used as examples of companies that employ a variety of soft models when dealing with policies and procedures, due to their detailed training methods, appraisals and procedures that encourage employee feedback.


The hard method on the other hand is more closely tied with the business strategy and is suggested to be used by companies with a stress on cost control due to its strict reliance on policies and procedures. The outcome of this being that it leaves minimal room for employee innovation and development.


Schuler (18) has undertaken research into cost reduction and quality enhancement strategies, even though the context is aimed more towards the manufacturing and industrial sectors, the basic principles are demonstrated to have hospitality relevance.


His evidence takes the skeptical view that as predictable as the outcomes of the hard model are, the relevance and existence of a HR department comes under question as reliance on this model means power rests in the hands of the top executives and designers of the workflow processes.


The negative aspects of the “hard” model being the effect on staff morale and motivation as there is little room left for deviation from the policies and procedures potentially leading to increased employee turnover.


However, the positive aspects of employing this system being the low level of un-certaintity due to the predictability of competition and customer behaviour.


The obvious examples of hospitality firms that employ this system being major standardised fast food chains and quick service restaurants.


The logical approach when considering the application of hard and soft HR models would be to integrate models that compliment each other. As previously discussed the concept of fit is all important when discussing the integration between the two strategies in question, however this concept of close fit may contradict the elements of the soft model. Due to the hospitality industry being renowned for cutting costs/corners through minimum wages, low quality service and products, this may be the reason why HR strategies have failed to have a positive impact.


Therefore; it is essential that HRM practices are consistent with what the organisation is trying to achieve otherwise, as Schuler (18) reports, role conflict and ambiguity may result in poor individual employee performance and affect the organisational performance of the organisation.A point argued by Tyson, S is that without human resource strategies and policies linked into strategic business objectives high levels of organisational performance are not likely. If this resource is successfully employed, the concept of HRM depends on how it is applied in a work situation and the tangible outcomes of integrating HR into a business strategy.


The evidence illustrated therefore demonstrates that the concept of fit between strategies lacks specific concepts and empirically elusive


The research conducted and points highlighted have shown that the aligning of business and HR strategies complex whilst there being a multitude of research conducted on the subject, the amount of research specific to hospitality is minimal.


Therefore the validity of HRM within the context of this essay depends on the extent to which human resources are used for the achievement of competitive benefit and added value to the firm and therefore should be treated one of the organisations decisive strategic resources.


Bibliography


In search of HRM Sission K British Journal of Industrial Relations 1


Strategic Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations R.S.Schuler


Human Relations Volume 41 Number 18 pp157-184


Human Resource Management and Performance in the UK Hotel Industry Hoque,K


British Journal of Industrial Relations September 1 pp41-44


The Practice of Human Resource Strategy, Tyson S, Pitman Publishing


Barriers to effective HRM Kane, B and Crawford, J International Journal of Manpower Volume 0 No8 1 pp44-515


Linking Competitive Strategy with Human Resource Management Practices Schuler R.S and Jackson, S.E The Academy of Management Executive 187 Volume 1 No pp07-1


HRM in Hotels a Focus on Commitment, Guinngle P.J and Jameson S, Employee Relations Volume No 4 00 pp40-4


Human Resource Management a strategic approach to employment Hendry C Butterworth Heinemann 000


Introducing Human Resource Management nd Edition Foot, M and Hook, C, Longman, 1


Lucas, R. (16) Industrial Relations in hotels and cateringneglect or paradox?, British Journal of Industrial Relations Vol. 4 No pp. 67-86


Price, L. (14) Poor personnel practice in the hotel and catering industry does it matter? Human Resource Management Journal Vol 4 No 4 pp.44-6


Sission, K.(10) Introduction Human Resource Management Journal Vol.1 No.1


Please note that this sample paper on Factors that impede the tight integration between business strategy and Human Resource strategies in the hospitality industry. is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Factors that impede the tight integration between business strategy and Human Resource strategies in the hospitality industry., we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on Factors that impede the tight integration between business strategy and Human Resource strategies in the hospitality industry. will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Wednesday, July 20, 2011

stemz

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stemz, lack of everything


yes yes i know i am prolly the laziest person i earth and it shows with the lack of updates on this site. I keep promising that im gunna put shit up and i always put it off until later then i usually dotn do it or wait like days. Well its not all my fault, i do gotta life now. Im not like most webmasters who sit at there computer all day and devote there life to there website and jacking off. Well on friday i chilled with ed and britney that was pretty chill. today i went to the New jersey devils game (big fan). and watched the devils kick the shit outa the senators 5-. I made it on TV prolly with my h4x0r hat cuz i was right behind the net. The ride to newjersey is a bitch but i guess it was worth it. tonite i aint sure wut im doing. I have neglected to call carmen in the past couple days cuz she lives like 40 mins from me and another sign of my laziness shows. I promise ill snap outa this laziness spree soon and everything will be up. Well acutally i take that back, i dont PROMISE but ill do my best. ganja good job with all ur posting and same you joe. Feel free to send me some freestyles u wanna make and ill gladly upload it for u. I think its about that time when i gotta call carmen or else im gunna waste my saturday night and i really gotta tap that ass. pz


posted on 05/17/0


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ganja, the Kamo Diss lyrics


R KELLY LYRICS


Ignition (Remix)


Now,um,usually I dont do this but uh....


Go head on and break em off wit a lil preview of the remix....


No Im not tryin to be rude,


But hey goofy kid you smell crude


The way you do the things you do


Remind me of a big fat poop


Thats why you need some mouth wash


You wish you had my mustache


You must be a lump a dog shit


The way you attractin flys quick


So nick get deodorant


And some crest tooth paste


brushin your teeth once a week


wont go to waste


While they say on the radio...


This is the remix to ignition


Hot and fresh out the kitchen


Nick smellin like shit


you know you have a big furry clit


7th grade science you are dumb


Im like wow what a bum


Its the freakin weekend kid


and that dick in ya mouths about to cum


Shower Shower Shower Shower Shower Shower Shower


Bathe Bathe Bathe


Now its like ya nose is getting bigger


Gap clothes you’re a wigger


Privacy is on the door


Gay porn you screamin fa more


Nick I know what you thinkin


No more hopin and wishin


Im bout to pay the doc so


you can get that beak a fixin


So nick get deodorant


And some crest tooth paste


brushin your teeth once a week


wont go to waste


While they say on the radio...


This is the remix to ignition


Hot and fresh out the kitchen


Nick smellin like shit


you know you have a big furry clit


7th grade science you are dumb


Im like wow what a bum


Its the freakin weekend kid


and that dick in ya mouths about to cum


Add some feathers and two wings Ill call you a bird


the only other kid whose nose


is bigger is Pollina, werd


We can fix that honker of yours


just give me a chance


ya shits taller than the iffel tower monument in france


Then after the surgery its the (ER lobby)


And after the lobby its the (shnoz party)


Because without your nose you wont kill nobody


You suck because you still smell like a dirty potty


So nick get deodorant


And some crest tooth paste


brushin your teeth once a week


wont go to waste


While they say on the radio...


This is the remix to ignition


Hot and fresh out the kitchen


Nick smellin like shit


you know you have a big furry clit


7th grade science you are dumb


Im like wow what a bum


Its the freakin weekend kid


and that dick in ya mouths about to cum


This is the remix to ignition


Hot and fresh out the kitchen


bro you betta do something quick


man I really am wishin


Ya breath smells like dung


Makes me wanna turn and run


Its the freakin weekend kid


but It makes me wanna shoot myself with a gun


Invizible out a this bitch


Take my advice


Brush ya teeth Wash ya head


You dirty kid, that how you got lice


Listen to this


and you might get some chicks without dicks


posted on 05/14/0


ganja, Well I am Sick


Sick as a motha fucka and this is madd weak cuz I jus finished coughin up one of my lungs. If y ou wanna see pics of it Ill send them to you. Anyways I feel like shit and Im without any energy but I get some benefits because Im about to go watch Cool Runnings~ Illest jamaican bobsled team around. I hope stem and everyone is having a grand old time in school while Im sittin at home juz chillin. Invizible Iz werkin on a new track and I have the preview, kinda shitty but its gonna rip the shit out of all the old shit you can find it at soundclick.com/bands/invizibleemcees. Yeh Im madd tyred of gay girls so if there are any reall women who aint fuccin tricks who are seein this Email me for mah pic. Oh by the way... Im gonna be DJing at the Massapequa or Rosyln Jewish Community Centers party this saturday if anyone wanna come check what Im spinnin feel free to ask me about it. Hopefully by the time Ill be buggin out. If not, Then that night me an stem gonna parrtay.


Aight Im boutta go watch that Flick.


~Ganja


One lass note, Im going to be on Jury duty tonight in the 5th precinct for gettin arrested in November or sumthin. This is gonna be funny shit because when I went to the peer court It was a fuckin joke aight payze


posted on 05/14/0


stemz, kickin it


well well well, what it is now niggas. The site is moving along as planned and things are goin smoothly. This weekend was pretty sick. I chilled with some firends on friday and fucked around by the movies, almost got caaught (more details will be in the weed story section). Saturday i cabbed to islip to see my carmen grins and chill with my cousin. I was mad pissed at my fmaily thouygh they were ditchin me all weekend and i was left on my own to get my own rides with cabs or friends. Anyway chillen with carmen on saturday was the best part of my weekend wont go into too much detials but it was a good time. Sunday was my chill day i stayed home for the most part and rode around a lil bit cuz i got a lil bored. Im gettin my permit in a couple months so thats gunna be hot i wont have to steal my dads car in order to get around or bum rides off firends. well ima go now ill add some shit tonite aftet i get back form anger management pZ.


posted on 05/1/0


ganja, well now we got some new sections up


So feel free to drop somethin because Weed stories are the best. An I got many many many of them So I shall be posting them eventually. Me and Stem Own J00bies. Oh by the way Heads up on Cannibus flavored toothpicks Supposedly they are the shit. Anyways .. . . If you wanna hear the Kamo diss go to this Tha Diss


~Ganja Has Spoken~


posted on 05/1/0


immature, mothers day..


mothers day... yeeaaaah mhm... sounds exciting dosent it.. for some reason mothers get their own very special day where u have to rush ur ass all over the place just to make em happy on mothers day... hmm i say FUCK THAT.. wheres my day i dont see no... Josephs Day so fuckit... today was pretty borin i went to sleep at about eight in the god dam mornin.. it was nice and light out by the time i went to sleep... i hadda wake up at like since i had company coming over for this day which was pretty boring.. i sat up here all day playing diablo wo0ot... i pwn at that game ) . I cant wait till the freestyle section comes up or comes back up ill be posting my rhymes up there like fuckin crazy.. even though i do suck pretty bad..... (im white) fuuuuuck - not fair. well im going on the phone wit some hot chick now. late snooties


im finished with this mutha fuckin post


you dont like it keep it shut or youll fuckin roast


posted on 05/11/0


stemz, okkk


yo were back again and ill be more in detailed later tomarrow in flex but for now just know that we are backkkkk.


posted on 05/11/0


immature, wo0rd?


ahhh wooord.... i guess ill post about an exciting day i had yesterday.. woke up at coreys house fuckin was bored so i called katie to go driving..... we went to this kid dennis house and i started driving (i didnt even have my permit wimme) so he jumps on the roof like an idiot and i go drivin wit him on it..... i made him bobble all over the fuckin place so i went on and let him drive. he takes a quick ass turn and my ass comes splatting onto the fuckin concrete... god dam.. splat well before i even had gotten up the neighbor called me a fucking idiot... and called the cops so i bounced i was all fucked up... i fucked up my wrist bad.. i have cuts on my elbwos knees and my rib nasty shit... o well man it was fuckin worth it ;] my mom thought i got shot haha stupid bitch late )


i fell off a fucking car roof


by the time i got up the car went poof


stupid muthas fuckas just drove away


they didnt even have nuttin ta say


cuts from my arms to legs


alls we were tryin to do was deliver those eggs


i fucked up my whole rist


now im fucking pissed


im sittin here wit a fuckin brace


start some shit and youll get punched in the fuckin face


my cripple freestyle 05-04-0


posted on 05/05/0


stemz, tisk tisk tisk


Hmmp... long ass weekend. Long yet fun. I guess i needed to recover from the field trip and there wasnt much to do cept chill at the house or with carmen. Both, i guess, were pretty sick. I started crackin aims again and i picked up my new aim antwan since aol raped me in the ass, suspending just about everything i owned. So if you wanna find me ill be at the aim antwan. Ill prolly get some of my old aims back after they were reset cuz i got most of them protected. But im really pissed cuz im not gunna get tony back. Being that tony is my name i wanted it over anything. I got it for like weeks and it was keep getting reset and shit but i kept getting it back. But aol smartened up and slapped a nice big permawarn on my sn so i couldnt sign on aim with it i could only sign on AIMchange. So i wasnt able to keep the emails pending so i eventually lost it. Anyway who gives a fuck about aims they mean nothign right? Really im not a fag who sits home and calls in names and runs his cracker just to get some leets. I used to like have nice sns but now i really dont care. I just wanted a couple that have my name in it. I updated the index page a lil bit added a couple for features and gave some more of the pages a nice tune up. All im really concerned about now is the files, i really have no where to keep them and since i have cable internet its a bitch point five to run a server off one of my shitty comps. Well im in flex now with my person flex and im bored as a mother fucker i took a break from this post times to play BS (which i lost all three times). I guess life is getting a bit better since it cant quite get worse from where i was at. Ima go now since the period is almost over and i gotta go visit someone - pz and love


posted on 05/05/0


stemz, niggas and bitches


Good stuff going on around this peace so far. Ill start with the bad though, it seems that i cannot find people that are gunna post with me constantly like i wood like them too. I wish i can get it back to the stemz.net days where it was me and klear bitchin everyday at this. Now im lucky to post times a week at best. Im asking around for all my friends (on/off line) to help me out but so far i havnt got many people that wanna help out. Its really not that hard all im askin is for is a simple post like - times a week. but anyway here is the good news, i put up alota jokes and the hosting section is now back so quick and jump on that while its hot. Im still working on content and the downloads section on almost but not quite done. someone please send me some jokes cuz i need some funny ones and ill give yoh full credit if u get me a hot one. I might be putting a up a contest like i did on my first site cuz that brough me alota hits so ill look into that only this time i dunno wut i want the contest to be. Lots of work to be done and ill slowly get there and eventually this site is gunna be the hottest e/n site out there cuz of its originality and the other shit thatll be goin on around here. Hmm well last night i chill with my latin princess carmen and my lord that was a fucking good time. Maybe it wood be a bit explict to mention the particulars but maybe one day ill share a bit more. im so not into my school anymore (not that i really ever was). Everyone is so gay in my school , sooooo immature. Thats why latly ive been finding that im having some great times chillin with carmens crew. Maybe ill find more chill peeps next year but till then im fine with where im at. i think im gunna take a cab to carmens cuz i got some leftover money from my shitty trip to cape cod so im outa here. pz and love


posted on 05/0/0


stemz, aite


Well this is the third time i am trying to post cuz when the server got hacked and the everything was lost i didnt save a copy of the my news program shit so i guess ill start this shit over. heres the scoop tho, i gotta new staff member (joey) and he is gunna be chippin in around here with like the shit he did with the nav and posting cuz that is wut i hear is his speciality. I just got back today from the worst fucking field trip in the whole history of fucked up trips. I picked up a nice fat suspension during the trip so monday ill prolly be stickin around. I cant believe summer is here so soon and this summer is gunna be sick. Im plannin to be goin alota places. damn i cant wait to chill with carmen this weekend smerks that i know will take my mind off my shitty week for at least a little while. im trying to think of shit to put on here and me and me and a couple people are gunna make a pranks sections since we do it alot anyway. along with the apps section im gunna be including cuz i found a host that will take my shit so i think this site is gunna be kicking it at the most is like a month or so i can prolly get it up in one night if i really cared that much. but i got much better things to do. im fuckin tired niggas so ill catch yall in the AM. pz and love


posted on 05/0/0


Please note that this sample paper on stemz is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on stemz, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on stemz will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



SOMETHING

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on SOMETHING. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality SOMETHING paper right on time.

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“It’s like rain on your wedding day. It’s the free ride and you’ve already paid. It’s the good advice that you just didn’t take. Isn’t it ironic? Don’t you think?” These are lyrics from a popular song titled Ironic. Have you ever stopped to think how ironic life is? Maybe you don’t even know what irony is. Irony is defined in Webster’s as “incongruity between the actual result of a sequence of events and the normal or expected result.” Oedipus’ life, in Oedipus Rex by Sophocles, is the epitome of irony. Even though the song Ironic was written just a few years ago, I think that the song could have been Oedipus’ theme song. I am going to take you on a journey through Oedipus’ life and demonstrate how different events in his life correspond symbolically to each scenario of this song. Oedipus ironic marriage is “like rain on your wedding day.” His “free ride” was to be a ruler, but he “already paid” by taking another throne. In addition we see many characters throughout the play giving him advice “that [he] just didn’t take.” However, the most ironic component of the play is how Oedipus, with good eyesight, is blind to the truth and the blind man can “see” everything.


A bride’s nightmare is rain on her wedding day. A wedding is suppose to be bright and beautiful not damp and dreary. The same thing is true for a marriage. For Oedipus and Iocaste their marriage started off bright and beautiful but abruptly turned damp and dreary. Oedipus runs away from home because of an oracle that says he would marry his mother. He thinks that staying away from his mother will prevent the oracle from coming true. After solving a riddle and delivering the people of Thebes, Oedipus gets a beautiful bride, Iocaste, as his gift. Life is good for Oedipus and there is no “rain on his wedding day.” However when he begins to realize that Iocaste could be his mother and the story unfolds, he is faced with having committed one of the worst sins, marrying his mother. Suddenly there is “rain on his wedding day.” It is ironic that the very thing that he left home for was the reason for his demise and the marriage that he cherished so much was considered so indecent. “Isn’t it ironic? Don’t you think?”


If Oedipus would have stayed in Corinth, he would have been king. It was a “free ride.” Polybos, King of Corinth, loved Oedipus so much that Oedipus believed that he truly was his son. If Oedipus would have stayed, he would have been there when Polybos got sick and passed away and then Oedipus would have inherited the throne. However, because of the oracle, Oedipus fled Corinth. Oedipus “paid” much to become a king, which he could have been if he would have stayed. This payment included killing the king of Thebes, ironically his father. Oedipus’ royalty could have been a “free ride,” but he decided to “pay” for it. “Isn’t it ironic? Don’t you think?”


Don’t you hate it when someone gave you good advice that you just didn’t take? Oedipus suffered immensely for not listening to other’s advice. For example, Teiresias tries to convince Oedipus to let him go home because it doesn’t want to tell Oedipus what he knows. Teiresias tell Oedipus, “No, I will never tell you what I know. Now it is my misery; then, it would be yours.” (Scene 1 line 11-11). Teiresias advises Oedipus not to force him to tell what he knows, but that was good advice that Oedipus just doesn’t take. Later Iocaste tries to stop Oedipus from digging so deep into the murder of Creon. She says “listen to me, I beg you do not do this thing!”(Scene line 145) Again it was “good advice that he just didn’t take.” “Isn’t it ironic? Don’t you think?”


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Perhaps the most ironic part of the play is the underlying symbolism of being able to see physically, but blind to the truth verses being blind physically, but able to see everything. This antagonism is seen between Oedipus and Teiresias. Oedipus is blind to the fact that the person he is so passionately looking for is himself. His blindness to the truth causes him to create an unimaginable sentence for the murderer of Creon, which is none other than himself. However, Teiresias who is physically blind is the one person who knows the truth. Teiresias knows that Oedipus is the murderer that Oedipus is looking for. Ironically at the end of the play, when Oedipus realizes the truth, he pokes out his eyes, causing himself to be blind. “Isn’t it ironic? Don’t you think?”


Irony is something that is encountered everyday. Most of us don’t even realize that it is irony. Oedipus primary goal in this play was to save his people and in saving his people, he banished himself. His marriage ended up being rainy, his free ride ended up costing him the throne, and the good advice that he didn’t take led to his demise. “Isn’t it ironic? Don’t you think?”


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Sunday, July 17, 2011

Joy Luck Club

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AMY TAN


Tan, Amy, Asian American novelist, was born in Oakland, Calif., on February 1, 15 approximately two and a half years after her parents emigrated from China. Amy Tan grew up in a rather large family as the second-to-youngest child. She attended high school in Switzerland and has been educated at eight different colleges, including Berkley and Oregon University.


Growing up in the San Francisco Bay area, she was fiercely opposed to her Chinese background in her youth, and she even went as far as sleeping with a clothespin on her nose hoping to narrow its Asian shape. Tans ties to China have so much to do with her mother. Though her father was a deeply religious (Christian) man, her mother always kept her Chinese traditions on reserve. When Tans father and brother both became terminally ill with malignant brain tumors, her mother called on as many of the Chinese religious traditions that she could. Tan says she is still haunted by these spirits that her mother so faithfully believed in; her works are especially reflective of these childhood experiences. After Tans father and her older brother died from brain tumors within eight months of each other in 168, her mother revealed that she had three daughters from a previous marriage still living in China. Tan felt sure that she was, in her own words, the wicked daughter, so she became more rebellious and rejected her background with a renewed vigor.


After this family tragedy, Tans mother took her and her younger brother to live in Europe. Tan finished high school in Montreux, Switzerland, and the family returned to the United States shortly thereafter. She attended numerous institutions before receiving a masters degree in linguistics from San Jose State University in 176. Though she has always had writing in her blood (her first published work was What the Library Means to Me at age eight), Tan has not always been the well-known author she is now. She has held quite a few odd jobs--bartender and carhop, for example. After graduation she worked as a consultant for developmentally disabled children until she turned to freelance writing in the early 180s.


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The overwhelming success that Amy Tan achieved with her first novel, The Joy Luck Club (18), resulted in part from the vividness of her recollections of growing up as a Chinese American. Although the novel dealt with the problematic relationships between Chinese-born parents and their Americanized children, Tan was reluctant to be considered a spokesperson for Asian Americans. She felt she was dealing with a personal conflict rather than with the raising of political consciousness. More importantly, she wanted her literary accomplishments to be regarded as aesthetic creations rather than as vehicles for cultural or historical edification, and the success of her subsequent novels did indeed establish Amy Tan as a notable literary presence whose bestsellers generated widespread, multi-ethnic appeal.


As a release from working 0 hours a week as a well-established business writer, Tan decided in 185 to pursue her dream of writing fiction. She attended a writers workshop, read lots of fiction, and began writing a short story. The short story she composed, called Endgame, was about a young girls success as a chess champion. Endgame eventually became a part of The Joy Luck Club, a novel which actually began as a series of short stories written for magazines.


The Joy Luck Club, her most widely-read work, was nominated for the National Book Award and the National Book Critics Circle Award, and was the recipient of the Commonwealth Gold Award and the Bay Area Book Reviewers Award, along with the massive amounts of praise it received from critics everywhere. Her latest book, The Hundred Secret Senses, is sure to be as successful as The Joy Luck Club and the subsequent novel, The Kitchen Gods Wife.


The Joy Luck Club related the experiences of four Chinese mothers, their Chinese American daughters, and the struggle of the two generations to communicate with one another. Tan was strongly motivated to write this novel when, after her mother was hospitalized due to an apparent heart attack, Tan decided to get to know her mother better, take her to China, and write a book. Finally, upon meeting two of her half-sisters on her trip to China with her mother in 187, she felt a sense of belonging, and she reflected this feeling and wove parts of her mothers life into The Joy Luck Club. Tans first novel met with instant critical and commercial success. It became the longest running bestseller on The New York Times bestseller list in 18. The book was also made into a feature film, for which Tan co-write the screenplay.


Tan followed her first successful novel with a second novel, The Kitchen Gods Wife, in 11. As with her first novel, her style was infused with flashbacks, storytelling, and a strong sense of history. Her second novel became a number one bestseller on The New York Times hardcover list. Her third novel, which focused on the bond between sisters, used ghosts and other unearthly phenomena to explore the intricacies of human relationships. It appeared on the bestseller list upon its release. In addition to her novels, Amy Tan wrote two childrens books, The Moon Lady (1) and The Chinese Siamese Cat, with illustrator Gretchen Schields.


The author now lives in San Francisco with her husband, Lou DeMattei, and has no children but two dogs she loves.


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whatever

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In beginning a career in physical education, I expect to develop a program that stimulates and challenges every students mind and body. Students should be equipped with an educator who constantly strives to update activities, methods, and curriculum that drives them to want to be more physically and mentally stronger.


Every student deserves to have the best learning environments that combine challenging their own abilities along with a fun and creative teaching style. Activities should help to strengthen already developed skills and to develop new skills that can be used in and out of the classroom and throughout their lives.


Units will be planned to accommodate student’s specific needs and interest. They will be designed to make them more physically fit and emotionally strong. Individual and team activities will be used to help give them a wide range of experience and knowledge. This knowledge can be used to encourage them to make choices that lead to a more healthy, active life.


This will all be achieved by setting realistic goals that vary in level and skill. Tasks will get progressively more challenging and set activities must encourage students to meet these tasks. Students should also exercise their minds by using creative thinking to solve problems and develop new ways to complete activities. Students should progress in their communication skills. They will be required to work together in some instances and respect and listen to others ideas.


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I believe that with all of this in place, students will achieve and adequate development in their physical, emotional, social and motor skills in a fun and safe environment.





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Saturday, July 16, 2011

The Minister's Black Veil

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Perfection is an idea that has challenged man in his own society, but is man actually capable of obtaining and maintaining a complete and steady state of perfection within his own inner being? As Plato would say, “Perfection cannot exist without the ‘idea perfection’ in the mind of an individual.” There is really no accurate state of perfection that exists in human nature. Perfection is determined by the different interpretations given to it man himself.


Many times man is caught in a trance to become better than his spiritual father, God. Many individuals believe that if they can outdo their Creator than they will obtain a “free scholarship” to the University of Heaven that contains the best teachers in the universe, rated number one above Harvard University. Yet, doesn’t this mean that to outdo God would make man his own god? This would be hypocritical to everything that man attempts to teach his fellow species in church every Sunday from the biblical scriptures. In that case man would be worshipping his own identity and following his own set of “commandments,” refusing to follow what Jesus Christ established centuries ago. The battle for perfection continues today as many individuals strive to live a pure life like the Creator of heaven and hell. So does this mean that the Creator and His Son only love those with pure hearts and souls? Jesus himself loved Mary Magdalene, the prostitute in the biblical era, some much that he was willingly to teach her the correct path to heaven and peace, leading her to become one of the most prominent Christian figures in the Roman Catholic Church.


The famous first “true” Christian writer, Nathaniel Hawthorne, wrote a series of short stories that deal with the “fall of man’s society” as well as the hypocrisy that occurs in the church today, leading man to break the first commandment, “ Thou shall have no other Gods before me.” Each short story is connected with the other in many important factors such as hypocrisy in the church and man becoming his own God. Hawthorne utilizes great imagery of biblical illusion in his work to bring his message across to “the sinners of our Father.”


In Hawthorne’s, The Scarlet Letter, the minister, Arthur Dimmesdale represents that all people are just human and potentially they are entitled to commit mistakes in their life. Dimmesdale lives a thousand faces but the primary face is that of hypocrisy as he is faced with a battle against his own conscience. Dimmesdale has committed the ultimate sin, yet his cowardly reputation restricts his mouth from reciting the truth to his fellow villagers. Dimmesdale has acted against everything he has preached in his sermons. The minister is no hypocrite! He is perfect!


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This is the reputation that man has interpreted for the authorities of the Holy Church, demonstrating the “perfection” of God here on earth. Because Dimmesdale is a minister he is not entitled to make any mistakes himself; he is paralleled to Jesus Christ who taught his people “truth and honor” for one another. The bible only gives you the human interpretation, which man has created over the years but the real truth lies undiscovered. Only Jesus could tell his people about the life he lived here on Earth free from evil and temptation. In a symbolic way, he did not live a life free from evil and hate for he was persecuted for the sins of all mankind. We all make up part of our Father and through our sins we cause him to lose His sense of purity.


Hawthorne illustrates through the character of Pearl, the sin of Dimmesdale, that she is the perfect “perfection” that man battles for in life here in their society. She is symbolic of God’s pure forgiveness of mankind’s sins against themselves. Pearl also symbolizes that true perfection is maintained only as a natural birth of your own identity. The vision of Pearl is a constant reminder to Dimmesdale that he has sinned against his Father and has failed to keep his commitment to the church of his Creator. Dimmesdale foreshadows the actions of one other character created by Hawthorne Mr. Hooper.


In The Minister’s Black Veil, the character of Mr. Hooper, the hypocrite of his congregation, symbolizes man’s quest to surpass his own Creator and judge his people based on the laws of hypocrisy. The black veil which lies upon the face of the minister is symbolic of the distance which he has placed himself from his congregation. He is too perfect for the presence of his sinners. Likewise, the congregation can sense that their minister has not been faithful to them.


The minister displays his cowardness through wearing the veil, which distorts his image of the world around him. Although the veil distorts the images from his sight, the small light, which he can see through his mask, symbolizes God’s hope for Mr. Hooper. God will not give up on this individual, causing the veil to remain transparent rather than opaque. The veil also serves as a reminder to society that they have caused a veil to form between themselves and their Creator every time they choose to sin against His will. Through the veil, Mr. Hooper attempts to hide his sins and cover his track in the ministry. The character of Mr. Hooper is that total opposite of Jesus Christ, who never once shunned himself from society because he was too perfect.


Although Mr. Hooper displays the acts of hypocrisy in his church, leading to him become God himself, he does teach a valuable lesson to his congregation. “ Why do you tremble at me alone?” “Tremble also at each other! … “I look around me, and lo! on every visage a Black Veil!” Mr. Hooper reminds his society that my making faces at him and gossiping about him around the church, they too have sewn a black veil on their face. They have sinned without knowing it. His entire congregation has become hypocrites of their own. They have also attempted to play the role of God through trying to judge Mr. Hooper for the veil that symbolizes “the fall of man’s society.” Man will cause his own destruction as Hawthorne has displayed through Dr. Rappaccini in his next story.


One of the most symbolic works of Hawthorne is Rappaccini’s Daughter, the story about a doctor who will go to any extent to gain powerful knowledge about life and the nature around him. In this work of Hawthorne, Dr. Rappaccini enacts the role of God by creating an experiment out of his naïve daughter. Her father’s experiment causes for Beatrice to bring death to every thing she lays her hand upon. Hawthorne utilizes a great biblical allusion in this story about the hunger for power and the deadly power of love. The scene with Beatrice and Giovanni are symbolic of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden and story of the tree of life. Giovanni falls in love with “the plant experiment” out of lust; he falls in love with her after the fact that he sees her beauty. He is tempted to visit her in the garden, arriving with purple flower that is symbolic of the apple of sin. The flower wilts after Beatrice infects it with poison. This is symbolic of the rise of Death. After Adam and Eve ate the apple from the tree, God created death. Death is inherited as part of our life when we are born into this world. The flower’s wilting signifies all the sacrifices which man must make in life to survive in his constructed society.


Dr. Rappaccini emotionally and physically “rapes” his daughter from life after his sins are the result of his beautiful Eve’s death. Once again man has tried to succumb the power and knowledge of his own Creator and results in a total tragedy causing the death of many innocent lives. Dr. Rappaccini “would sacrifice human life, his own among the rest, or whatever else was dearest to him, for sake of adding so much as a grain of mustard � seed to the great heap of his accumulated knowledge.” The flower from the garden of life is symbolic of his own sacrifice of his daughter to gain this knowledge, which his brain hungers. Dr. Rappaccini has gone against every word that is read in the bible. His greed has overtaken his soul; he no longer loves his daughter but views her as the experiment that will gain him that “grain of mustard-seed of knowledge.” He has become a hypocrite of society’s rules to love and protect your loved ones.


Hawthorne has utilized these characters to teach us humans’ valuable lessons about the world around us. Should they been forgiven or condemned for their ignorance to realize that God is the supreme being of the world? If man continues to seek for happiness in the idea of perfection, he will remain lost in melancholy for eternity. Hippocrates believed that moderation, harmony, and a “sound mind in a sound body” lead an individual to a healthy lifestyle, physically and emotionally. Antithenes believed that true happiness lies in not being dependent on such random and fleeting things. Perfection will only be an idea that has no true definition. According to St. Augustine, evil comes from mankind’s disobedience. The good will is god’s work and evil is the falling away from God’s work. We are entirely at his mercy.


No one can judge the creations of Hawthorne because we have all committed sins in our life. He, who has not sinned, be the first to cast the first stone at these characters. Condemning these characters would only put you in their place as hypocrites of the church. They can receive “financial aid” for being the minority of society so that they can still get accepted into the University of Heaven. But are these hypocrites truly the minority or are they the majority that can be found around the corner in the hall of your school. We must remove the black veil that we each wear before we can make any statements. We must review our past, accepting our own faults and condemning ourselves first before condemning our neighbor. Man should live a life full of peace and happiness within their heart rather than competing with each other for the power of “perfection”. We are God’s family and if we destroy ourselves amongst each other it is like symbolically crucifying him once again. Hypocrisy is a natural instinct of man and he must learn to overcome it before ever developing the “idea perfection.”





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