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Friday, July 1, 2011

malaysian studies

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bye byeMalaysian Studies


Topic Religions and Beliefs


There are many religions and beliefs practiced in the whole wide world. Basically in Malaysia there are 4 main religions and beliefs. The religions practiced in this country are Islamic, Buddhism, Hinduism and Christianity while the beliefs are Confucianism and Taoism.


The Islamic Religion


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The Islamic Religion is the official religion in Malaysia. Islam was brought to the world by Prophet Muhammad who was born in Mecca on 4 Apr 570AD or 1 Rabiul Awal Tahun Gajah. His father was Abdullah bin Abdul Muttalib and his mother Aminah binti Wahab. He was raised by his grandfather, Abdul Muttalib when he was orphaned then by his uncle, Abu Talib when his grandfather died. Even as a young man, he was already honored as al-Amin by his community who was impressed by his noble character. He married Siti Khadijah binti Khuwailid at the age of 5 and managed his wife’s business. He showed his leadership qualities when he solved a dispute among the chiefs of Quraisy over the relocation of the Hajarul Aswad Stone to its original site after Mecca were beset by flood.


The Prophet received the first divine revelation on 6 August 610 (17 Ramadan) from the angel Gabriel at the Hira’ Cave. The first revelation was the Surah al-Iqrawhich means ‘Read in the name of your God who made man from a drop of blood…’ After a few months, he received the second revelation from the Allah S.W.T to spread the teachings of Islam. He carried the command for 1 years. During this time the Prophet and his followers suffered great anguish and torment from the Quraisy people of Mecca.


On receiving Allah S.W.T command to move, the Prophet then migrated to Yathrib on 1 September 6 AD (1 Rabiul Awal). The Prophet and the people of Yathrib entered into agreements, namely the Aqabqh I Agreement and the Aqabah II Agreement. Following that Yathrib was renamed Madinah. After a few years the Quraisy was forced to succumb to the Prophet and accepted Islam.


The basics of Islam are akidah and syariah. Akidah is absolute faith or believe in the oneness in Allah S.W.T and everything that has been revealed by Allah S.W.T. Syariah is the laws and regulations of Islam contained in the holy Koran and the Sunnah (Hadis). The major festivals of the Muslim community are Hari Raya Puasa, Hari Raya Haji and Maulud Nabi.


Buddhism


Basically there are two types of practices. The Chinese practice the Mahayana (Great Vehicle) branch of Buddhism which spread to and developed bin China during the Han Dynasty. This version of the religion has undergone adaptation. The Thais, however followed Hinayana (Little Vehicle) Buddhism, a more original version which places importance on saintly living.


Buddhism is based on the teachings of Siddharta Gautama (56 to 48 BC), a prince from Kapilavatsu in North India near Nepal. Gautama was disturbed by the plight and suffering of the people so he leave the comfort of his family to seek truth and to experience the life of the ordinary people. He found enlightenment under the Bo tree.


The basics of Buddhist teachings are the four truths which the Buddhists call ‘noble truths’


1. Suffering and unpleasantness in life, like old age, disease and death, are gifts of nature.


. Suffering is caused by greed or desire for wealth and pleasure which do not last.


. Suffering can end when greed and desire is overcome or controlled.


4. To overcome or control desire and end suffering one should followed the noble Eightfold Path or the Middle Way.


The Buddhist celebrates Wesak Day which is a public holiday in Malaysia.


Hinduism


It was brought here by the Indian workers who migrated to Malaya in the 1th and early 0th centuries. There is no one founder of Hinduism. The Hindus have two set of sacred books- the Vedas and the Upanishads. These books were written in Sanskrits. The epics Ramayana and Mahabharata are also regarded as holy texts. The Vedas consist of Rig-Veda, Yajurveda, Atharva Veda and Samaveda.The Hindus believed in Trimurthi (Three Transformation). This concept explains that god appears in the form of different deities- Brahma (the Creator), Vishnu (the Saviour) and Siva (the Destroyer). It also teaches the incarnation of the soul when people died.


The main festivals of the Hindus are Thaipusam and Deepavali. Others include Thaipongga, Navarathri and Hindu New Year.


Confucianism


It is founded in China by Kung Chung-Ni who was called by Kung Fu-Tze or Kung the Master. The Europeans, especially the Christians westernized the name to Confucius. The teachings of the Confucianism are contained in a holy book called the ‘Analects’. He emphasized life in this world in his teachings.


Followers of Confucianism in this country worship Kung Fu-Tze as a deity and have built temples for this purpose. On festive occasions, they make offerings of roast pigs and sample money notes. There is no statue of Kung Fu-Tze, like that of Buddha, in such a place of worship; only a stone tablet on which is written the teachings of Confucius.


Taoism


It was founded by Lao-Tze. His teachings focus on ‘Tao’, which means ‘way’. Hence the name of is teachings, Taoism. His teachings are just as blur and difficult to understand today, as they were in the past. The holy book of Taoism is Tao Teh Keng.


According to Lao-Tze, Tao determines the course taken by the universe and is responsible for its movement. Because of this, Tao is the ‘way’ which must be used by mankind. It is the way to unite mankind with the universe and consequently co-ordinate man’s life with the universe.


The two complementary principles of yang and yin in Chinese tradition explained the concepts of harmony in Taoism. Yang is positive, bright and masculine. Yin is negative, dark and feminine. The interaction of Yang and Yin is thought to maintain harmony of the universe and to influence everything within it.


Christianity


It was brought here by Christian missionaries during the Portuguese control of Malacca. According to believers, the Christian way of life was taught by Jesus Christ. Jesus began teaching as an itinerant preacher. He taught obedience to one another and also performed some miracles. The Jewish leader plotted to get rid of Jesus. He was sentenced to death and crucified in about AD. Christians believe that God raised Jesus from dead three days later. Jesus met and spoke with his followers for a short period of time and after that was taken into heaven. After this his followers spread the teachings. The basics of Christian teachings are oneness with the God, obedience to God, brotherhood and love. The holy book of Christianity is the Bible.


The Christians celebrated Christmas, God Friday and also Easter.





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