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Saturday, October 29, 2011

Bias In The News

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There is quite a lot of bias in news articles and it is very effective in stimulating our response to an issue. In the article Rich, famous unite in grief ( West Australian 5 September, 18) bias is included to symathise our response to the victim or victims and to be angry at the people responsible. Reporters can use headlines, Figure of Authority language and the six questions to create a effective slant on an article. All these factors play a huge role in the impact of the bias.


The headline is the first place in an article where the bias first starts. The size of the headline varies on the importance of the article and various poetic tools in a headline give the article a impact and a extremely strong determining point for the bias.The headline Rich, famous unite in grief uses strong words and alliteration and is typed in big, bold, black letters. This and the journalists impacting words make us feel angry at the people responsible for the Swissa disaster.


The way a headline is written and displayed aids in impacting the readers reactions to the article.


A Figure of Authority is used quite often in a article to help convey the bias. All direct quotes from these people are added in with the article to give the reader some proof. As an audience or readers we tend to believe and agree with what these people are saying because they are important and we as readers trust them. In the article Rich, famous unite in grief there is a direct quote from Mr La Motta I had four daughters but only two sons, and I lost them both in just seven months It shows how much pain and loss has happened to one man but then there are many others like him who have lost just as much. This quote makes us feel very sorry for the victims parents and love ones and extremly angry at the people responsible. The quotes in articles influence us to believe things about the people in the article.


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Every journalist chooses his/her different style of language to influence the reader in many various ways. Persuasive, descriptive, factual, emotive and poetic are the different language styles used by journalists. Each of theses styles has a different impact on the readers thoughts and responses to an article. In Rich, famous unite in grief an example of this is As grief counsellors helped the families of those killed. This is showing us that the families are helpless and shaterd at the loss of their loved ones. The uses of these writing techniques the journalist is able to create an impacting bias.


As the six questions are mostly factual but they however do contain some bias. They are normally in the introductory paragraph and are very simple the answers to the questions who?, What?, When?, Where?,Why? and How?. In the Rich, famous unite in grief the answers are in the first whew paragraphs which say that no survivors survived the Swissair disaster and that the families are under great grief. This however doesnt have a great impact on the bias but is factual in the article.


Therefore the bias in articles has a great influence on the readers response to the issues in articles. Headline and font, figure of authority and finally the six questions make up the bias in newspaper articles. As each factor plays a different role in impacting the bias.There is definitely a lot of bias in news articles and news just wouldnt be good if it didnt make you feel something for the story.


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Friday, October 28, 2011

Music

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Hip Hop has gotten some pretty bad press over the years.  


The first exposure I had to hip hop that I can personally remember was in 187 when my 8 year-old brother brought home a bootlegged tape of the Disco a.k.a. the Fat Boys Crushin album.  He brought his cassette player into the kitchen and promptly blasted the Fat Boys Protect Yourself / My Nuts for the whole family to hear.  He thought it was hilarious.   I was six years old at the time and giggled profusely.  My mother was furious at both of us, but more so at Prince Markie Dee, Buff Love the Human Beat Box, and Kool Rock Ski.


The above anecdote may indeed be a digression, but it points to the fact that sometimes, like Will Smith once flowed poetical, Parents Just Dont Understand.  More importantly, however, is that hip hop has always been embroiled in controversy and misunderstanding.  Here are some of the issues that hip hop has had to contend with in the mass media and with government officials.


Clearly, hip hop is not merely a rap song or the marketing of image and eye-catching clothes.  It is a form of expression and a way of living and knowing and coping with the surrounding world.  Scholars such as Tricia Rose, William Eric Perkins, and Russel A. Potters, as well as artists and fans, have devoted their lives to the survival of hip hop because of its complexity and cultural value.


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The Hip-Hop and Cultural Studies Collective was conceived in the summer of 1 by R. Scott Heath and Shawan M. Wade, graduate students at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor.  It was imagined initially as a central space, run by an organization of individuals to advance the study of hip-hop culture.  At a subsequent meeting the concept was actualized through the formation of the first Executive Committee consisting of the founders and three other charter members�Millery Polyn�, Angie Colette Beatty, and Geoff K. Ward.  This group determined the mission of the Collective  to collect and synthesize hip-hop scholarship and cultural production, to document the development of this social movement, to promote and diversify the study of hip hop in the academy and to provide community access to comprehensive and valuable information about hip hop.  The organization has established the following objectives





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Response to A Raisin in the Sun

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English 0G


July 11, 00


Response Paper II, Drama


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Response to A Raisin in the Sun, Act II, Scene III


While reading Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun, I could see a definite theme of social oppression and injustice. There were underlying, subtle references to slavery throughout the whole play. I think it was really brought into view in Act II, Scene III, when Mr. Lindner comes to call, in a seemingly innocent, welcoming visit, to the new community they were about to move into. He patronizingly speaks to the family, as though they were beneath the understanding of his kind, when he says, “…there’s always somebody who is out to take advantage of people who don’t always understand.”(1404) That would probably be him.


I believe he is implying that, because they are Negroes, and apparently not as bright as he and his fellow whites, they could not possibly comprehend the meaning of all that is going on. He is there to inform them of the rules they have to live by in the white community. He constantly refers to them as “you people”, but when he speaks of the neighborhood of whites, he calls them “our people” and “our community”. (1404) When he says, “our Negro families are happier when they live in their own communities”(1404), I strongly got the feeling that “our” meant, in some way, that he was inadvertently implying ownership of these people, as in slaves, and that they should be kept to living with their own kind; not to mix with their betters. Rather like the slave boss, whose job was to keep them in their place.


Beneatha brings in religion when Mr. Lindner offers the family, “a very generous offer…” for their home. Beneatha says, “Thirty pieces and not a coin less!” (1405) Religion is one of the mediating structures that keep most African-American families together in hard times, and although she seems to denounce it in Act I, I believe she still strongly believes that God is a driving factor in their lives.


Mama also makes a subtle, and rather funny, reference to slavery in Act III, when she tells the moving man that her chair, “ain’t no bale of cotton…”(141) Also in this part of the play, she has decided that Walter has become man enough to head the household. In African societies, this had to be proven by rites of passage. In her eyes, he has finally proven himself to be worthy of this honor. He can finally take his place.


Off the record


I must say that I really related to this play, in a big, sympathetic way. I grew up in the South during the 50’s and 60’s. I came from a family that treated everyone the same; no matter what color their skin or religious beliefs. We were rather odd, I guess. I was totally appalled by the treatment of the black people then. I came from a middle-class family, and I had friends that were “Negroes”. My parents didn’t care, because they also had friends of every color. I went to many places that “Negroes” were not allowed to be in. It did then, and it does now, disgust me. They were not allowed to look at or speak to me, in public, because I was a young, white girl. They could be hurt because of it. They could not go into the same bathroom or drink from the same fountain. They could not attend my schools. I have seen crosses burned in friend’s yards and bricks thrown through their windows. I was young and didn’t understand that there is supposed to be a difference. Thank goodness, I still don’t see it.


I also think that Beneatha is a terrible name for anyone, especially for a black girl. To me, it implies that she is not above anything or anyone.


Works cited Our text





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Thursday, October 27, 2011

time management

If you order your essay from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on time management. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality time management paper right on time.

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Time Management 1


RUNNING HEAD SUCCEEDING AT TIME MANAGEMENT


Succeeding at Time Management


Jeanie Seidelmann


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July , 00








Time Management


Success of Time Management


Good time management is one of the core differences between success, mediocrity, and ineffective people. In business, money and time are both important. A business may focus on profit, expenses, and budget. A successful businessperson should focus on the effectiveness of spending time (Control your Time, 001-00). To begin managing time, you will need a clear understanding of how to use your time and how to properly plan your day. We will then look at how to use that time more effectively, how to create time, goal setting, and rewards. Effective time management is the focus on results and not the art of being busy.


Planning and Organization


To begin, take a personal survey to track how you spend your time. This will allow you to estimate time spent on current activities, time wasters, and dead time. Use a log to evaluate this, and track your activities for a week or so. Determine what is important, what could enhance performance, what to avoid, and what to eliminate. Know your energy levels, outside stressors, and how to block out negativity. Using time to think, plan, and organize is time well spent. In fact, if you fail to take time for planning, you are, in fact, planning to fail (Prochaska-Cue, 15). Get a system, a planner, or calendar to help stay organized. This will help lay the groundwork for planning and organization your time and goals. Another suggestion is to combine tasks. While commuting to work or school, listen to taped notes or brainstorm. During your lunch break, read some research or a book. While watching television, write out your bills. You will need to prioritize your time and activities. Use the 80/0 rule originally stated by the Italian economist, Vilfredo Pareto. He notes that 80% of the reward comes from 0% of the effort. Prioritize, isolate, and identify the valuable 0%. Once it is identified, you will be able to concentrate on those items that will inhibit the greatest reward (Prochaska-Cue, 15).


Time Management


Setting Goals


You may also need to adjust your mindset. Avoid being a perfectionist for no one is perfect. Setting unreachable goals or difficult tasks may result in procrastination. You will need to set achievable goals, but set goals that will challenge you. Setting goals will raise your self confidence, help you realize your competence level, and enhance your abilities. Set goals that are specific, measurable, realistic, and achievable. Your optimum goals are those which cause you to stretch but not break as you strive for achievement (Prochaska-Cue, 15). When setting your goals, express them positively and be precise. Schedule dates, times, and write down the end achievement so they can be measured. Noted management expert, Peter Drucker, says “doing the right thing is more important that doing things right. Doing the right thing is effective and doing things right is efficient. First focus on effectiveness and then shift your concentration on efficiency (Prochaska-Cue, 15). Once the goal is reached, you can take complete satisfaction from having it completed.


Rewards


Reward yourself for reaching your goals. Whether it is a small success or great achievement, celebrate your accomplishments. Promise yourself a reward for completing each goal or finishing the job. Then keep your promise. Doing so will help you maintain a balance between work and play. As Ann McGee states, “if we learn to balance excellence in work with excellence in play, fun, and relaxation, our lives become happier, healthier, and a great deal more creative.” (McGee, 18). By using effective skills and time management, you will increase your own effectiveness. You will become more productive at work and enhance your job security. Understanding what is expected of you, concentrate on those things, be in control, and reap the benefits.





Time Management 4


Discussion. In conclusion, to be successful at time management, you will need to evaluate yourself, keep a log or calendar, prioritize, set goals, and most importantly, reward your accomplishments. Enjoy and maintain the balance between work and your life outside from work. It is easier to find something to do with extra time then to find extra time to do something.


Time Management 5


References


Drucker, P. (166). The effective executive. New York Harper & Row.


King, R. (00). Make cents of your time. Retrieved July 1, 00, from


http//proquest.umi.com/pqdlink


Prochaska-Cue, K. (15). Thirteen timely tips for more effective personal time


management {Electronic version}. Retrieved July 1, 00, from http//www.ianr.unl.edu/pubs/homemgt


Time management control your time. (001-00). BusinessTown.com, LLC.





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Drama Reflection on "Los Vendidos" by Luis Valdez

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Drama Reflection on


“Los Vendidos” by Luis Valdez


“Los Vendidos” is a wonderful light-hearted play by Luis Valdez, which he creates using, satire, irony, and comedy. Valdez uses many of these elements to portray how Mexican Americans have struggled to find their identity in America. He uses satire to demonstrate how the American government needs the support of Mexican Americans, but does not return that support. He uses irony by using Mexican American characters throughout the play to create various stereotypes of Americans attempting to obtain what they want. Throughout the play Valdez uses a comedic air to portray the stereotypes of Mexican Americans that have been created by Americans and are in some ways expected in our American society. The comedy, satire, and irony all combine to create a wonderful drama about how Mexican Americans have struggled to find their identity.


The play begins with Ms. JIM-emez, who has denied her heritage and pretends to be ignorant to the Chicano ways while at the same time is unable to escape her own culture. Ms. Jimenez, a secretary from Governor Reagan’s office, has come to Honest Sancho’s Used Mexican Lot and Mexican Curio Shop to search for a token brown-skinned person who can fill a token position in the governor’s office. She wants someone who will not stand out too much but will show the Governor has a brown-skinned person on his staff. She is looking for someone who is dark, but not too dark, and suave. Valdez wrote Ms. Jimenez was looking for someone who was “Beige, just the tone.” This implied that this token brown-skinned staff member would be beige in politics, too, and a “yes” man to all the politicians who want him around just to make them look good! As Ms. Jimenez continued her search for a Mexican American for Governor Reagan’s staff, each character sold-out both their races and their way of life.


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The characters in “Los Vendidos”, which means the sell-outs, sold themselves out on both the Mexican American and American way of life. In fact the Mexican American character showed great disrespect for his Mexican heritage when he said, “The problems of the Mexicans stem from one thing alone he’s stupid, he is under-educated, he needs to stay in school. He needs to be ambitious and be forward looking, most important he needs to think American.” With this statement, he showed some of the imperfections, flaws, and weaknesses of Mexican Americans, which I believe showed great disrespect for his heritage. He definitely cannot decide if he wants to live as a Mexican American or as an American. He is not only selling his heritage out, he is selling himself out.


This was a very enjoyable play that I would love to see portrayed on stage. In fact, having actual Mexican American characters would make it even funnier. Reading it in class with the Mexican accents and Mexican/American accents was hilarious and a wonderful technique. It really made an impression on me. It is just amazing to me how we all stereotype people without even realizing it!





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Tuesday, October 25, 2011

Ozymandias

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Sherlock Holmes


Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was born in Edinburgh on May 185 to Mary Foley and Charles Doyle. He had a good education and studied medicine at Edinburgh University, graduating at years old. He paid his way, working as a clerk for Dr Joseph Bell, who later became the model for Sherlock Holmes.


The first story A Study in Scarlet was published in Beetons Christmas Annuals in December 1887. Ironically he regarded the Holmes stories as a distraction as he wanted to write other kinds of stories, even after they were published in the immensely popular Strand Magazine.


In 18 Conan Doyle put an end to the Holmes series and was knighted in 10 by King Edward VII, after defending General Kitchener and the army. The following year saw the revival of Holmes, in The Empty House published in McClures Magazine in New York after popular demand.


In 1 Conan Doyles health began to decline. Early in the morning of 7th July 10 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle died. He was buried beside the summer-house in his garden. His grave was marked by a simple oak slab on which four words of epitaph were carved, Steel True. Blade Straight.


Sherlock Holmes was the hero of Conan Doyles stories. He was well known by his deerstalker hat and magnifying glass which he uses to examine the room where Miss Stoner died in The Adventure of the Speckled Band,


Then with his lens he tested the hinge.


He works with his good friend Dr Watson and, because people respected doctors, makes Holmes look more respectable, especially when he works out a crime. The two have a very close friendship and Watson enjoys working with Holmes,


I had no keener pleasure than in following Holmes in his professional investigations.


Sherlock Holmes was pompous yet very clever and because of the poor police service of the times, many looked up to and admired Holmes and he treats his clients in a well-mannered way and is very considerate. This is shown when Helen Stoner comes in,


I shall order you a cup of hot coffee for I observe that you are shivering.


He covers each case with great enthusiasm,


I am all attention madam! Holmes walked in and examined all of them with the keenest interest.


The Sherlock Holmes series were very popular in Victorian and Edwardian times, as they were among the first detective fiction stories. The first acknowledged detective story was The Moonstone written by Wilkie Collins in 1868. Many Sherlock Holmes stories first appeared in The Strand magazine, which was, at the time, immensely popular and easy to obtain. Many people were receiving an education so were able to read the stories. At the time the stories first appeared, the real life Jack The Ripper was at large, and because the police were failing to solve this crime and were viewed by many as impotent, the reassurance of Holmes successfully solving all the mysteries greatly aided the series popularity.


The stories were set in real places which people could identify with, making the stories seem more believable. Holmes popularity was shown when, although Conan Doyle attempted to kill off Holmes for a career change, public demand forced him to bring the series back seven years later. Many readers of the Holmes series actually believed that the famous detective was real, which for them would have made the stories even more realistic.


Even today the Sherlock Holmes series is as popular as ever. A museum has been opened at 1B Baker Street, which many people visit. There have been over 00 films and television dramas made about him, with Sherlock being played by over 70 actors. There is currently a new television series being made. A reason for the Holmes stories still being popular today is the fact that they are set in another era; people enjoy the escapism this offers. Its style and flow also enhances its brilliance. Detective stories are of a very popular genre as the reader enjoys trying to solve the crimes before the detective does.


Conan Doyle uses many different techniques in order to build up excitement in each Sherlock Holmes story. For example, in The Adventure of the Speckled Band simple sentences are used to build up suspense,


I nodded again. A similar example can be found in The Man with the Twisted Lip,


Oh, no, no!


Another technique used by Conan Doyle in his stories is using complex sentences, such as His form had filled out, his wrinkles were gone, the dull eyes had regained their fire, and there, sitting by the fire and grinning at my surprise, was none other than Sherlock Holmes, in The Man with the Twisted Lip and also, in The Adventure of the Speckled Band,


Two days ago some repairs were started in the west wing of the building, and my bedroom wall has been pierced, so that I have had to move into the chamber in which my sister died, and to sleep in the very bed in which she slept.


His use of complex sentences allows him to give detailed descriptions and lists of ideas so the reader is given a clear understanding of what is going on.


He asks lots of questions but does not answer them. This allows the reader to try and solve the mystery, which adds to the excitement of the story as the reader wants to read further into the story to try and find more clues. An example of this use of unanswered questions is in The Man with the Twisted Lip,


Was it possible that we could bring him back to her?


Conan Doyle actually gives clues to the reader to assist the reader trying to solve the mystery, this is displayed in The Man with the Twisted Lip


Hum! Posted today in Gravesend by a man with a dirty thumb.


Although the reader is given clues, there is always a feeling that Sherlock Holmes and Watson know more than they are revealing. This makes the reader want to progress further into the book and discover exactly what the detective and his friend could be hiding.


There are many adjectives included in the stories. Such as in The Adventure of the Speckled Band,


Weary and haggard gaping fireplace


This use of adjectives helps to create mood and give the reader a clear image of what is going on in the story. Other language is used to create excitement and tension within the reader, This is shown in The Man with the Twisted Lip,


Frightened frantically, and also in The Adventure of the Speckled Band


Untimely death horror dangers terror


He also uses metaphors in his stories, which help to create a vivid portrait. There are examples of these in The Adventure of the Speckled Band


With restless, frightened eyes, like those of some hunted animal.


And also in The Man with the Twisted Lip


The mans face peeled off under the sponge like the bark from a tree.


During the stories there are setbacks and pitfalls which help to build up suspense and give greater impact throughout.


As the truth begins to surface there is a gradual unveiling of facts.


Showing that he had struck a light and looked about her when the alarm took place. This encourages the reader to read on through the story to pick up more facts to try and solve the mystery before the detective does.


Although there are pitfalls and setbacks in the stories, the hero always wins over the criminal, with the mystery being successfully unravelled. This is shown in The Man with the Twisted Lip,


I am sure, Mr Holmes, that we are very much indebted to you for having cleared the matter up.


This adds to the excitement during the stories because the reader wants to find out how and when the mystery is solved.


In The Adventure of the Speckled Band wild animals which are not often seen in Britain are included in the story. The reader is intrigued by these mysterious animals and so may be curious to see if they are involved in the mystery and how.


The idea of a snake instantly occurred to me. There is also a sense of irony in The Adventure of the Speckled Band as the man who sets out to murder is killed by his own evil. This happens when Dr Roylott sets out to use the snake to murder Helen Stoner, but it turns on him and kills him.


It flew upon the first person it saw.


There is a frequent change of pace throughout the stories, which helps to build up tension and then relax the reader until the story reaches a climax. It changes from slow, very detailing and descriptive, to fast, short sentences with dialogue and few adjectives.


In The Adventure of the Speckled Band the paragraphs become shorter as the story progresses, which helps to build suspense and tension in the reader. The story has a peak where there is lots of action and suspense, but then becomes calmer as it reaches the end and the mystery is solved. The peak comes right in the middle, so it is not too early that the story would lack tension, but not too late that the reader would become bored. This technique is also used in The Man with the Twisted Lip during Watson and Holmes conversation in the den,


Nearly Eleven


Of what day?


Of Friday, June 1th


The family involved in the story is rather unusual, as although they are aristocratic, they seem to be having a lot of bad luck and misfortune.


At least throw a little light through this dense darkness which surrounds me?


Which immediately draws the readers attention to the fact that something is about to go wrong for them, yet again. The fact that an aristocratic family is included is a smart move by Conan Doyle, as aristocracy was of major interest at the time, so could draw interest as well as excitement.


The fact that Dr Klas has got away with murder before makes him seem even harder to beat, so this actually makes the reader want good to win over evil.


She died just two years ago.


There is a very detailed description of the building involved, which helps to create and set the mood.


The building was of gray, lichen-blotched stone a small side door led into the whitewashed corridor


These give the image of a cold and eerie house where murder would most likely take place.


In The Man with the Twisted Lip there are also detailed descriptions, such as in the den where Watson finds Holmes,


A long, low room, thick and heavy with the brown opium smoke,


This creates a detailed image for the reader, thus allowing them to visualise what is happening.


At the end of each story, Holmes gives his explanation of the unravelled mystery and how he solved the case. This is used in both stories, The Adventure of the Speckled Band


I had come to these conclusions before ever I had entered his room


And also in The Man with the Twisted Lip


I do not know that there is anything else for me to explain


So not only does this final explanation summarise and conclude the Holmes investigation, but it also answers any of the readers question which may have developed during the story.


In conclusion, after comparing The Adventure of the Speckled Band and The Man with the Twisted Lip the story I found to be most successful in creating excitement was The Man with the Twisted Lip as, in my opinion, it portrayed a more vivid image and the techniques used to develop excitement were generally more successful and worked best with the story. The detailed descriptions throughout helped to create tension and although it did not seem to have so much of a peak to it as The Adventure of the Speckled Band it did have a twist at the end of the story which was very unexpected and added a greater impact.


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Monday, October 24, 2011

Sonny,s Blues

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The main character in Sonny’s blues Is Sonny’s brother who has no name. He looks at the way Sonny’s life has turned out and tries to understand what happed to him. The bother learns of what happen to Sonny on his way to work one morning. Sonny was arrested for the possession and sale of heroin. The brother, who is a teacher, describes how he feels all day long to show the way he keeps his emotion bottled inside. He says it feels like “a great block of ice got settled in my belly and kept melting there slowly all day long”. The brother in the end of the story finds a way to reconnect to Sonny.


Baldwin shows that Sonny may have become addicted to drugs because of all the emotion he kept inside. Both of the brothers have this problem. Sonny was not skilled enough in playing the piano to let it out at that point in his life when he turned to drugs. For as long as Sonny could remember he wanted to escape the life he was living. First he wanted to become a musician and then later in his life he took drugs to escape from life. After his relies from jail he tried to focus on going to school and getting his life back together. But the musician in him just had to get out. All the while his brother was trying to figure out were he had failed Sonny and watched him to see if he would go back on drugs.


There are many differences between Sonny and his brother. But there is one thing they have in common and that is that they both keep the feelings on the inside. Sonny Bother in the end of the story realizes that if he does not express him self like Sonny something bad might happen to him too. He sees this for the first time when he goes to hear Sonny play at a jazz club. Sonny is final able to release the emotion he has inside.


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Baldwin’s use of the first person narration gives you’re the feel that you are inside of Sonny’s brother head and your can feel what he is going thought. I feel that he does not give the narrator a name so that we can put ourselves in his place. So that that as the reader your can focus more on Sonny’s and what his problems are. Your can also see how the narrator tries to find the fault in himself that caused his brother Sonny to take drugs. In the end of this story the brothers finally are able to connect to one another. May Baldwin was trying to show us that we should find an outlet for our feelings before they turn into something really bad and unhealthy.





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The Fall of Enron

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Not so long ago, Enron’s name was amid a lexicon of corporate and political power. However in a matter of months Enron transformed from one of the greatest corporate success stories in US history to the centre of perhaps the largest corporate scandal the business community has ever seen, engulfing company executives, one of the worlds largest accounting firms, politicians and Wall street traders. This paper analysis’s the amazing journey of Enron form an organisation held in the highest of esteem by the community and envied by competitors, to its shocking demise leaving its name a disgrace and sparking a long line of investigations and criminal and civil charges laid upon its officers and accountants from burned investors and former trading partners.


In the early eighties when takeovers were the business strategy of choice, Kenneth Lay successfully fended off a hostile takeover of his pipeline company, Houston Natural Gas. It was then that Lay realised that the key to the company’s survival was, ‘to make itself to big to devour’ (Henriques 00). So in 185 Lay orchestrated the merger of his company with the largest pipeline company in the world, Internorth of Nebraska. The merged company changed its name and Lay was put in charge. Enron was born.


Initially the company was faced with enormous challenges. Beyond being saddled with debt from the merger, Enron was submerged into a rough, deregulated marketplace. Lay was not satisfied with Enron simply being a mover and seller of gas. Lay saw wide spread opportunities in the industry and moved the company into the commodities trading world of electricity, gas, wood pulp, steel, advertising time on television, insurance against credit default and later moved into the world of e-commerce adding high speed data and internet capacity to it lengthening list of company resources.


Business boomed and Enron was thriving. By 15, Enron had become the biggest participant in the natural gas industry, controlling one fifth of North Americas market (Eichenwald 00). Enron was ranked number seven by Fortune magazine in April 001 in Fortunes ranking by market capitalization of the five hundred largest corporations in the United States (Gomez 00). At its peak Enron had annual revenues of more than $100 billion, employed more than 0,000 people and was widely recognised as the biggest e-commerce company in the world � carrying a bubble era inflated stock price to match.


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Kenneth Lay, Enron’s CEO created strong relationships with many of the nations politicians, including president George W Bush as well as making large contributions to many political campaigns. By the time Mr Bush was inaugurated in 001, Enron and its executives were the largest contributors over Mr Bushes career with an amount exceeding $750 000 (Eichenwald 00), It was through these relationships in which Enron became a pioneer in deregulating Energy markets in the US. According to Mr Hebert, chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, conversations with Mr Lay carried a clear message, ‘Enron, a generous contributor to the Bush campaign, would use its White House access to advance its interests’ (Henriques 00).


All told, Enron represented a collective investment of $10 million, however in reality it was producing minimal returns (Schultz 00). From the outside looking in few of Enron’s problems were evident.


18 saw Enron earn its highest ever annual profit. Earnings continued to rise and Enron’s stocks climbed to $0 a share, showing a promising future for the company. However, what none knew was that this success was not only unsustainable, but also was to be short lived. In mid 1, Enron executives began the manoeuvres that set the thriving company on its doomed path.


Enron was in desperate need of additional capital to continue its growth, despite the substantial debt it already held. Funding new investments by issuing additional debt or raising capital was unappealing as it diluted earnings per share and was unattractive on financial statements. Andrew Fastow, Enron’s chief financial officer was able to solve the company’s problem, or so they thought. Fastow set up several partnerships which allowed Enron to move debt off its balance sheets and provide an influx of cash flows from outside investors such as banks. The partnerships set up were defined as Special Purpose Entities (SPE). The use of SPE’s are common among US corporations. They provide that as long as at least % of capital comes from outsiders, an SPE can be left off the consolidated financial statements of the parent company (Reinstein & Weirich). This enabled Enron to raise cash flows through debt under SPE‘s without it being recorded as a debt on financial statements or disclosed to shareholders. On the surface, this arrangement represented a common financing technique decreasing the company’s risk by moving it debts to separate partnerships that were not included on the parent companies financial statements (Schultz 00). However, later it was revealed that these partnerships were used by Enron as a tool for making the company appear far more profitable than it really was. At least a dozen of these partnerships were set up.


Enron’s stock prices were the key link which enabled Enron to keep hundreds of millions of dollars of potential losses off its books. The contracts between Enron and the partnerships had provisions, called triggers, that required Enron stock prices to remain above a specific level. When Enron’s stock was trading as high as $0, the stock prices attached to these triggers were - $57.78 in one case, $47 a share in another and $8 in third. At a time when the stock prices were so high, the triggers seemed absurdly low and none though the stock would ever reach such lows (Cameron 00).


As the Nasdaq boom in technology stocks fizzled, Enron stock began to fall. Stocks hovered around $70 a share, however this was still far from the trigger prices and so alarms weren’t being raised just yet. Under accounting standards, Enron was able to keep roughly $504 million of red ink off its books as long as the SPE‘s remained financially healthy enough to fulfil their obligations. However the SPE’s were deteriorating. In March 001, accountants found ways to refinance then using a series of complex and fragile transactions, however they were merely putting off the inevitable. This allowed Enron, in April, to present first quarter results for 001, boasting $45 million in earnings, while huge losses were shuffled away in “off balance sheet” partnerships. Enron may have seemingly won the battle � but it was about to loose the war.


Enrons stocks continued to fall. By mid June 001, Enron stocks were floating alarmingly close to the trigger prices that had once seemed so ludicrously remote. “On Monday, July 001, Enron’s stocks closed at $46.66. It would never rise above $47 again” (Henriques 000).


August 14th saw the world inside Enron take another twist. Jeff Skilling, who had been made CEO just six months prior, after Lay stepped down, announced that he was resigning. Citing undisclosed personal reasons as the grounds for his decision, he left assuring investors that the finances of Enron had never been better.


By late September, Enron was essentially doomed, although it would be weeks before that reality sank in. The problems at Enron went by unnoticed by the public as the nation focused on the horror and aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks.


Another blow for Enron came when auditors from Anderson discovered a mistake they had made more than a year earlier. They way they accounted for Enron’s shares that had been used to finance the partnerships had incorrectly added $1 billion to the assets on Enron’s balance sheet. Correcting this mistake would reduce Enron’s assets by $1 billion. On the 16th of October Enron announced it was deducting $1 billion from its third quarter earnings, producing its first loss in more than 4 years. A loss amounting to $5 million. As a result October saw Enron stocks fall to around $0 a share and continued to decline heavily.


In late October another bomb was dropped. It appeared that Chewco, one of Enron’s SPE’s which had been treated as an independent entity which housed millions of dollars of debt, did not meet the accounting requirements of such. This meant that all Enron’s prior transactions with Chewco had essentially been transactions with itself, constituting a criminal act.


Lay, who had stepped back as CEO after the resignation of Skilling, realised Enron was in over its head and began looking for options to save the troubled company. After exhausting almost all options there appeared a light at the end of the tunnel for Enron. After talks with one of Enron’s long time rivals, Dynergy Inc, it appeared that a merger between the two companies was the answer.


On the surface, the Dynergy deal seemed to be Enron’s salvation. Boards of the two companies tentatively agreed to the merger on November 7th 001. Enron shortly after was forced to announce that its financial performance since 1 had been an illusion, largely created by Fastows partnerships and the manipulation of SPE’s. Correcting the improper accounting for its dealings with these partnerships meant that $600 million in previously reported profits were wiped out (Reinstein & Weririch 00).


The downward spiral for Enron was beginning to reach the end of the road. The company was hemorraging cash. A week after signing the merger agreement Enron burnt through $ billion and was not able to account for a large portion of where the money had gone. Payment on many debts were accelerated due to the troubles Enron was experiencing. Enron owed $60 million, payable within days. On November 0th Enron’s shares closed at $6. a share. As a result of the recent events Dynergy terminated the merger. It appeared Enron’s had reached the end of its downhill slide.


At 4.8 am December nd Enron officially filed the petition for bankruptcy. The game had ended. Enron’s audacious climb to Success ended in a dizzying plunge.


001 had seen Enron take on a new mission to become “the worlds greatest company” (Eichenwald 00). Today Enron is renoun as the world’s greatest story as the biggest, fastest corporate collapse in American history.


The demise of Enron can be largely attributed to its relationship and dealings with the partnerships it created. A weakened economy in the wake of the Nasdaq tech stock burst and September 11th also assisted in the company’s deterioration. However other issues inside the company also played a key role. Corporate culture inside Enron has been speculated as a major contributor to Enron’s brutal collapse. It was a culture of greed and arrogance which breed excessive secrecy. An insider described Enron’s culture as “ an adrenaline driven culture, with an obsession of 15% a year or better growth” (Fox 00). Enron also had a rank or yank policy � anyone not ranking well was subject to be yanked. “Employees who were yanked sometimes had just 0 minutes to get their things together and leave” (Packer 00).


The controversy surrounding Enron has seen the formation of many jokes which circulate the industry. “What is business school morality? It is the ethic that says the purpose of every living creature on Earth is to increase shareholders value. It says that conduct is acceptable if it passes an audit and pleases Wall Street analysts.” (Packer 00). “What is tooth-fairy economics? It is a body of knowledge that ignores the implications of expecting endless growth. If a company isn’t growing at a rate of 0% compounded annually, management is deemed to be incompetent” (Packer 00). While it is of a satirical nature, Packer does successfully reflect on the culture which existed inside Enron.


At the centre of the Enron storm is the accounting firm Arthur Anderson. Anderson was both, Enron’s external auditor as well as their internal accountant and advisor. Enron was Anderson’s second biggest client. Last year alone it collected $5 million in audit fees, and even more for it’s accounting and advisory work (Grey 00). This remains one of the most highly debated issues in the US today, should a public firm serve both as an auditor and a consultant? Anderson failed to raise the alarms regarding a number of accounting scandals which inevitably bought the company to its knees. Whilst Anderson denies any wrong doing, including the shredding of documents relating to Enron, is has admitted to “an error in judgement” in its treatment of Enron’s ‘off balance sheet’ vehicles which led to an overstatement of profits by more than $600 million between 17 and 000 (Reinstein & Weirich 00).


In the tragic demise of America’s seventh largest corporation there is no one person can be held accountable. Auditors who had multiple and conflicting roles did not raise alarms about improper financial statements. Directors failed in their duty to closely question management and accountants, and thus failed to ferret out the accounting irregularities. Lawyers and company officers set up partnerships that concealed the true financial plight of the company. Rating agencies yielded to the entreaties of management and only slightly downgraded credit ratings at a time when the company was failing. While Wall Street analysts from companies such as Goldman Sachs continually recommended Enron stock, even as it plummeted. As those on the outside wonder in disarray how a company boasting such power and success could collapse in just 11 months, many on the inside are still amazed that the troubled empire remained as long as it did. In essence the collapse was the result of a highly flawed vision; the consequences essentially inevitable.


Bibliography


1. Davis, J (00), “The Enron Factor”, ABA Journal, Chicago, April.


. Eichenwald, K (00), “Web of Detaild Did Enron In as Warnings Went Unheeded”, New York Times, Feb 10th.


. Eichenwald, K (00), “Audatious Climb to Success Ended in a Dizzying Plunge”, New York Times, Jan 1th.


4. Fox, L (00) “Enron The Rise and Fall”, Harper Collins Publishers, NY.


5. Goldstein, J (001), “What Was Enron”, Wall Street Journal, New York, Dec 1th.


6. Gomez, L (00), “Enron � a case for better understanding cash flows”, Business Credit, New York, Jul/Aug


7. Henriques, D (00), “Seeking a quick fix; Struggling to avoid posting huge losses, Newsweek, Jan 4th.


8. Holman, W & Jenkins, J (00), “Enron for Beginners”, Wall Street Journal, New York, Jan rd.


. Kaufman, H (00), “The Fall Out From Enron; Lessons and Consequences”, Vital Speeches of the Day, New York, May 15th.


10. Packer, A (00), “Enron � the movie”, Machine Design, Cleveland, May th.


11. Reinstein, A & Weirich, T (00) “Accounting Issues at Enron”, CPA Journal, New York, Dec.





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Sunday, October 23, 2011

Bloody Sunday

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What Really happened on Bloody Sunday? We’ll never really know. We could find out some facts, which definitely did happen. These following paragraphs show what definitely did happen.


On the 0th of January 17, 14 Catholics were killed (thirteen died on the day a fourteenth died later in police custody from the injures suffered on that day) when soldiers of a British paratroop regiment opened fire during a civil rights march in Londonderry/Derry.


The march began around ten-to-three in the afternoon. About 10,000-15,000 people gathered in Creggan Estate planning on walking to Guildhall Square in the centre of the city where a rally would be held. The march was illegal because the Stormont Parliament had banned protests such as this.


At twenty-to four the marchers met Paratroopers who had sealed off approaches to Guildhall Square. Because of this blockade, the marchers went down Rossville Street in the direction of Free Derry Corner. A group of marchers stayed behind and threw stones and missiles at the soldiers. The soldiers returned fire using rubber bullets, CS gas and water cannons. This forced protesters to take cover in Bogside. The paratroopers in armoured carriers moved in, their orders to arrest protesters they moved down to Rossville Street and Bogside. Now what happened becomes misty. Soldiers say that they just returned fire from protesters and the Catholic community say that soldiers shot randomly at unarmed civilians. The results of 5 minutes of gunfire are undisputed 1 civil rights marchers were left dead a fourteenth died later in police custody from his injuries.


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But why did the British Army fire shots at protesters? This is something we shall never know. But one of the most likely explanations was that the paratroopers were scared of possible violence because of the violence in the past weeks and months, in one event the IRA and British Army had a shoot out killing several IRA members and a British soldier so tensions were high.


The reasons why civil rights marchers organised such a huge rally was a protest against internment. Internment was where people in Northern Ireland, suspected of being terrorists could be arrested and put in prison without any trial. Soldiers, police or other government officials could come into your home and arrest you without any due cause.


Irelands third Prime minister in under a year Brian Faulkner at dawn on Monday the th August 171 officially started internment. This was due to counteract the IRA violence of the past few months. th August 171 000 British Soldiers backed up by RUC Special Branch Officers, who provided the out-of-date intelligence. The RUC officers who were well known for being Protestant and discriminative against Catholics were left to control the operations.


In that day alone over 00 Catholic men were arrested. In the following 48 hours due to out-of-data intelligence 104 were released without charge. One 80-year-old man was arrested for being an IRA terrorist; he admitted he use to be but hadn’t being for over 0 years. As he struggled to walk, he said he was flattered that even after so long he was still counted as a threat to mainland Britain.


The remaining internees were severely beaten, deprived of food and sleep and subjected to white noise. The government was being accused of torture; people suspected of having information even if it only was an army hunch were beaten even if they knew nothing (The picture to the left is one of those detainees it is clear the torture he suffered, he was only released when the Army realised that he knew nothing).


This internment did nothing but provoke more violence, in the year before interment 4 people were killed, in just three days after were killed and many more were to follow.


This interment was to only increase support for the IRA many now still didn’t join the IRA but no longer condones its actions. This led to hundreds of street demonstrations one of course being Bloody Sunday.


Why was the overwhelmingly number of protesters Catholic? Simply because the Catholics were the ones being interned, as the unionist government wanted to crush the IRA and the IRA being a Republic organisation and Republicans mainly being Catholic. But there was a much wider problem so internment was not the only reason they were marching they were protesting for equal human rights for people independent of whether they were Catholic or Protestant.


The Catholics were fed up of being nd class citizens they found the law was mainly Protestant. Employment was given to Catholics first. Housing was even discriminative but two ways. Politics was extremely Protestant, probably because of vote rigging. 8 nationalist councillors in Derry/Londonderry represented by 14,000 Catholics while 1 Unionist councillors represented by ,000 Protestants. Even the way people voted was so that Unionists won elections. 1 house= 1 vote so the Unionist government gave more houses to Protestants therefore making sure they had more than one vote.


Why was there a rift between Catholics and Protestants? This is due to discrimination of the Catholics by the Protestants; this rift can be traced back centuries. As far back as the 1th century and Henry II invasion of Ireland. The conquered Irish land was given to the English. The Irish were also angered by the fact that these new settlers had more power and privileges than their counterparts. From then till the act of Union in 1800 England and Ireland were frequently at war with each other. During James I reign in 1601 war against Ireland was declared and again under Oliver Cromwell’s control war was declared against Ireland. These wars and privileges mad the Irish very angry and anti-British.


The above wars were all about power and land. Religion didn’t come into these wars until 154 when Henry VIII was the King of England. Henry VIII and his ever changing marriages, in 154 Henry VIII wanted a divorce and the Pope wouldn’t give it to him (because the Pope was being threatened by death by Catherine of Aragón’s brother (Catherine of Aragón being Henrys current wife)). Henry in his power decided to break away from the Pope and set-up the Church of England, this angered the Irish, as they wanted to keep as Roman Catholics and refused to join the Church of England. As well as that he also angered the Irish by stating that he was also the king of Ireland.


When James the II was put in exile out of England in the late 160’s, through his sheer jealously of the Protestants who threw him out, James II raised an army to attack Protestants in Londonderry/Derry. The new king of Ireland, William of Orange, defeated James at the battle of Boyne. The Orange Order still marches to commemorate that day. The Orange Order marches are another of today’s reminders of the division between Roman Catholics and Protestants.


Although the act of Union ended the wars it caused its own problems. Irelands parliament had to be closed and England took over control of Irish law, the icing on the cake was that Irelands new laws would by passed by Westminster, London not in Ireland. These generally unwanted laws meant that there were job restrictions on certain jobs meaning Catholics had the restrictions and Protestants didn’t.


The great potato famine of 1846 was when Irelands anger built up and began to erupt. England had failed to help the millions of starving so there was a split in the population. One section wanted Ireland and England to be totally separate countries these were generally the people who suffered the worst during the famine, as they were generally poorer so lived on cheap potatoes. These people in general were Catholics who were also Nationalists and Republicans. The other wanted Ireland and Britain to be linked; in general these people were Protestants who in general were unionists and loyalists.


There was the Partition, the partition was not really an event, it was a process, which took place between 10 and 1. The partition was the Split of Ireland into two parts-


Northern Ireland


Eire/Southern Ireland


Its main terms were


Six of Ulster’s counties became Protestant and became a self-governing Northern Ireland, with its own Parliament in Belfast.


The remaining 6 counties would also become self-governing with their Parliament in Dublin.


Britain keeps control of issues such as military naval facilities.


On Easter Monday, April 4, 116, a force of Irishmen under arms estimated at between 1,000 and 1,500 men and women attempted to seize Dublin, with the ultimate intention of destroying British rule in Ireland and creating an entirely independent Irish Republic to include all counties of Leinster, Munster, Ulster and Connaught. Their leaders, Patrick Pearse, James Connolly and the others, knew that their chances of success were so slight as to be almost non-existent. Yet they fought, and died. Why?


The circumstances that led to the Irish rebellion of 116 are of an intense complexity, historical, social, political and, perhaps above all, psychological. The Irish writer, Sean OFaolain, has written of his country Most of our physical embodiments of the past are ruins, as most of our songs are songs of lament and defiance. The Easter Rising was a complete failure, which left large parts of Dublin in ruins; yet without it Ireland might never have been free of English rule. The leaders, alive, had very few supporters even among the Irish patriots; dead, they became and have remained their countrys heroes. It was a great historical paradox, and one that to this day the British have perhaps never understood. Had they understood it, it is conceivable that the British might still have an empire, since the overthrow of British rule in Ireland marked the beginning of the overthrow of British imperial might in Asia, in Africa, and elsewhere.








Died later as a result of his injuries received that day





I have found some reasons why Britain and Ireland had such bad relations. The hatred built up over centuries and erupts as marches and riots, the conflict is from years ago but still effects peoples lives today.


I am going to be studying three main pieces of evidence into what Happened on Bloody Sunday. Below is an overview of them all


Lord Widgery Report Lord Saville Inquiry Jimmy Mc Governs ‘Sunday’


When done 17 18-present (expected completion in 004) 1-15


Time taken 10 weeks 6 years years


Conclusions Army innocent None yet Army guilty


Additional information Widgery supported the actions of the army only condemning them for being a little quick. Interviewed hundreds Lived with relatives of those killed and interviewed army witnesses


Didn’t interview key army witnesses Expected cost of £150 million Mc Govern was born in Liverpool with a Catholic majority could of being biased because of this.


There is conflicting evidence from Bloody Sunday mainly on who fired first. Others include whether or not the IRA was present. The army would not now admit that it fired first as this would contradict what they said earlier this would cause huge embarrassment for them and saying it in court of law would bring up questions about the army and who really controlled was it the elected government or themselves. The marchers would also not admit to firing first as this would mean that people would stop being sympathetic towards the marchers and their cause.


The problems with the Widgery report? The government has long shared the wide spread view that the Widgery Report was unsatisfactory and that it did not represent the truth of what happened on that day. Indeed, the very disregard with which the Widgery Report was viewed by nationalists, particularly those in Derry/Londonderry, has meant that they have largely ignored it, so far removed was its version of events from the reality of what they believed happened in Derry/Londonderry on the 0th January 17. On three other hand, for the British authorities, the Widgery report remains the official version of events. On the basis of the Widgery report, compensation was granted to the next of kin in 174 and in 1 the British confirmed the innocence of those killed by reference to the Report’s finding that none were found guilty.


The problems are mainly inconsistencies between statements, but these problems widened to show reports, statements being kept from the eyes of relatives. Also they found clear indicators that after soldiers had written these statements alterations were made to them and soldiers were often ‘advised’ what to say in the tribunal hearing. Widgery made no mention of bullets fired from city walls but it has being made clear by former soldiers and factual evidence such as how the bullets entered the body, some were from a trajectory only possible from the city walls.


Staff of the Widgery report have also being accused of fabricating aspects of the soldiers statements in an apparent attempt to justify the killings. The Widgery inquiry never took notice of a who said the lead particles found on the bodies of the deceased could of got there from contact with the bottom of a army vehicle or in touch with a soldier who fired a weapon. The Widgery report had being commissioned by Edward Heaths Conservative Government. Therefore would it be critical of its own government? I think not, it would try to justify the killings. The report only took 10 weeks the Saville inquiry is going to take at least 6 years and Mc Govern’s ‘Sunday’ took three years, these are massive differences could the Widgery report find the truth in 10 weeks that it is going to take Saville 6 years to find out?


It can be concluded that the Widgery Report was fundamentally flawed. It was incomplete in terms of its description of the events on the day and in terms of how those events were apparently shaped by the prior intentions and decisions of the authorities. It was a startlingly inaccurate and partisan version of events, dramatically at odds with the experiences and observations of civilian eyewitnesses. It failed to provide a credible explanation for the actions of the British Army, particularly the actions of 1 Para and of the other British Army units in and around Derry. It was inherently and apparently wilfully flawed, selective and unbalanced in its handling of the evidence to hand at the time. It effectively rejected the many hundreds of civilian testimonies submitted to it and opted instead for the unreliable accounts proffered by the implicated soldiers. Contrary to the weight of evidence and even its own findings, it exculpated the individual soldiers who used lethal force and thereby exonerated those who were responsible for their deployment and actions.


Above all it was unjust to the victims of Bloody Sunday and to those who participated in the anti-internment march that day in suggesting they had handled firearms or nail-bombs or were in the company of those who did. It made misleading judgements about how victims met their death. The tenacity, with which these suggestions were pursued, often on flimsy or downright implausible grounds, is in marked contrast to the many points where significant and obvious questions about the soldiers’ behaviour, arising from the Report’s own narrative, are evaded or glossed over.


There have been many atrocities in Northern Ireland since Bloody Sunday. Other innocent victims have suffered grievously at various hands. The victims of Bloody Sunday met their fate at the hands of those whose duty it was to respect as well as uphold the rule of law. However what sets this case apart from other tragedies, which might rival it in bloodshed, is not the identity of those killing or killed, or even the horrendous circumstances of the day. It is rather that the victims of Bloody Sunday suffered a second injustice, this time at the hands of Lord Widgery, the pivotal trustee of the rule of law, who sought to taint them with responsibility for their own deaths in order to exonerate, even at that great moral cost, those he found it inexpedient to blame.


The new material fatally undermines and discredits the Widgery Report. A debt of justice is owed to the victims and their relatives to set it unambiguously aside as the official version of events. It must be replaced by a clear and truthful account of events on that day, so that its poisonous legacy can be set aside and the wounds left by it can begin to be healed. Given the status and currency which was accorded to the Widgery Report, the most appropriate and convincing redress would be the Saville inquiry a success.


Problems with the Saville inquiry? We don’t fully know the problems of the Saville inquiry, as it has not yet being completed. But the major dilemma we do know it faces is time, it has being thirty years since Bloody Sunday, views vary over years people remember and forget things; its our natural instincts. Evidence has being lost imperative witnesses have died bullet holes will no longer exist the will of being covered over by layers of cement, bodies will of decomposed. The Saville inquiry though is trying to be as through as possible with what it has and is looking for new verification and finding it, but unfortunately it can never establish the whole truth as it is no longer possible, but can still find some and give some indication of what happened on Bloody Sunday.


Jimmy Mc Govern’s ‘Sunday’ is based primarily on fact but there is a lot of fiction intertwined into it but it looks like it is fact. It can be very hard to distinguish between fact and fiction. Prime examples of this are the meeting between the Prime Minister and Lord Widgery he would of never of known what was said and it would of being said ‘off the record’ so no written information could of ever being found about it, on the helicopter going and leaving the Widgery report he would not of known what the soldiers said and thought- it was fiction. It was a docu-drama if it was just the truth it might not of being as interesting it was made to be shown on television so it may of added bits in for this purpose. Mc Governs own background could of made him naturally sympathetic’ towards the Catholics views. He was born and grew up in Liverpool, which is widely known for its high majority of Irish-Catholics, he may of being able to relate to the Catholics better than the Protestants.


Overall the trustworthiest is probably going to be the Saville inquiry, as it has no influence on the current government if it talks badly about the current government, as the Widgery report did. It has more chance of reaching a balanced conclusion. The Widgery report had to be the least trustworthy as it didn’t get all information before making judgements some evidence was being ignored. The whole thing had massive gaps in it. The balance of evidence from both sides was lacking. The nd trustworthiest is Jimmy Mc Governs ‘Sunday’ as it was biased to Catholics but not nearly as biased as the Widgery report was for the government. It had fact but a lot of fiction was also intertwined, although it did accept some protesters were carrying guns.


However unfortunate we know we will never know the full truth on Bloody Sunday there are too many conflicting arguments and nobody will take responsibility for their actions. We will discover some truth from the Saville inquiry but no enough to make definite conclusions. We will never know who shot first although there are accusations that it was Martin Mc Guinness or Soldier H but which one if either we shall never know. Time is a big problem facing the Saville inquiry and Mc Govern. People move people die. Bodies decompose. Places change. We may not like it but no inquiry will bring out the full truth until people start coming forward saying what they did, the man who fired first if still alive if he came forward he could help but will probably take his secret to the grave with him.


What I believe happened was a solider in the corner of his eye thought he saw a gun and shot in that direction, other soldiers and marchers who were carrying guns fired resulting it 5 minutes of undisrupted gunfire and 14 dead. I think both sides have equal responsibility the army fired large amounts of bullets into densely crowded areas and civilians with guns caused some to be shot. I do think many of the Civilians shot were shot by snipers on the city walls. I do believe some of those killed did or were carrying guns but not all of them, but I don’t know which were guilty and which were not.


Bloody Sunday is commemorated today by minute silences, peaceful marches, laying flowers and wreaths, trust funds trying to clear the victims names and grieving the loss in your own home by just stopping and sparing a thought for those who died.


Above are pictures of a march through Derry/Londonderry commemorating the 0th anniversary of the Bloody Sunday massacre.


The annual Bloody Sunday march; retracing the route the civil rights protesters drew about 0,000 people when it took place on the Sunday of commemoration of the 0th anniversary.


Bloody Sunday is commemorated today because people are still angry with the government for the Widgery inquiry and still upset that 14 died due to British soldiers who were suppose to be the ones protecting them.


Bloody Sunday will not be forgotten because to relatives and People of Derry/Londonderry, Bloody Sunday is an open wound, which will not be healed until Britain admits its troops were culpable and the victims are totally exonerated.


The events of Bloody Sunday did absolutely nothing but make sure current troubles carried on into the 1st century. Security analysts and politicians concede that it marked the end of a phoney war the start of all out violence. Tony Blair said ‘ we must justice so the peace process can begin’ another leading politician said ‘I have lived a long time and no troubles have affected us as a nation as the Northern Ireland troubles.’ Disaffected Catholic youths swelled the ranks of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) because of it and joined its hit-and-run campaign to drive Britain from Ireland.


After these men had joined, the IRA needed to be seen to be doing something. So in probable revenge for Bloody Sunday on the nd February 17, an IRA bomb killed 6 at the Aldershot headquarters of the 1st Parachute regiment of the British Army. Ironically, it was the same regiment that killed the civil rights marchers, so you can see why I said in probable revenge for Bloody Sunday. 10th September 17 bomb rocks London. 0th April 174 death toll of troubles hits 1000. 17th June 174 IRA bombs parliament. 17th July 174 IRA bombs tower of London. 5th October 174 bomb kills four in Guildford. nd October IRA bomb west end. 8th October 174 attempted bombing of minister and his wife. 1st November 174 Birmingham pub blast, 1 killed. 5th September 175 London Hilton hotel bombed. nd September 175 Northern Ireland bombed. 7th November 175 T.V presenter shot dead. 5th January 176 bus ambush, 10 die. th January 176 West end bombed. 7th August 17 Lord Mountbatten murdered. nd March 17 British ambassador to Holland assonated. 0th July 18 bomb causes carnage in London. 7th October 18 RUC officers killed by bomb. 17th December 18 Harrods bomb blast kills . 1th October 184 Tory cabinet meeting bomb blast. 8th November 187 bomb kills 11 at Enniskillen. 16th March 188 shot dead at Milltown cemetery. 0th March 18 Senior RUC men die in gun attack. nd September 18 10die in Kent barracks bomb. 0th July 10 IRA bombs stock exchange. rd December 1 bomb explodes in Manchester. 0th March Warrington bomb attack. 4th April 1 bomb devastates London. 10th February 16 Dockland bomb. 15th June 16 huge explosion in central Manchester. 15th August 18 Omagh car bomb 7 killed. 6th February 000 bomb attack on hotel. rd August 001 car bomb explodes in London.


There was a bombing campaign in 1 but then there were no more bombs until after Bloody Sunday, that really is something that Bloody Sunday has changed we now have murderous revenge on not only those who committed the Bloody Sunday massacre but also innocents, civilians caught up in the IRA web of murders.


The only nauseating thing was that Bloody Sunday has contributed to these tensions being brought into the 1st Century, these tensions now affect a range of events including Football, and the Northern Ireland captain was forced to quit the team because of Protestant threats. These tensions will carry on until someone does something about it instead of trying to tackle violently why not peacefully or politically.


One of the things that annoy me is that people who paint murals on their houses have the right intensions but I think these only help to sure tensions carry on into the 1st century. I also think that to get over these troubles then all sides must accept responsibility for what has happened and vow to ‘forgive and forget’. On the following two pages there are pictures of these murals.


There were troubles in Ireland long before Bloody Sunday it can be traced back to the 1th Century so Bloody Sunday never changed anything. Bloody Sunday did one thing though it made this phoney war a battle that would continue into the 1st century and if things carry on as they are then for a long time to come.


I think that Bloody Sunday was a complete tragedy; I have no doubt that protesters were carrying guns but they were in the smallest minority. I think that the army fired too much too quickly and were just as much to blames as the protesters. Everybody needs to forgive the actions of the soldiers and vice versa also paramilitary groups such as the IRA need to be disbanded. The government and Irish people need to start building new bridges to stop the growing number of deaths. Their needs to be forgiveness and forgetness. With any luck it will soon, before another life is stolen.








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Religion represents the major correlation and contrast between the poetry of Thomas Hardy and Gerald Hopkins. Hardys poems looked at religion with a cynical eye, exposing inconsistencies of the actions of the world as proof of either the ambivalence or lack of a God. Hopkins, on the other hand, saw God as an omnipresent force on the planet and in everyones lives, and his poetry reflects this extreme faith in religion. The poems of both Hopkins and Hardy mirror occurrences in each of their lives, as both led substantially different ones. Despite some similarities between the poets -- significant unhappiness, same era -- the differences in their views on religion and their subsequent effects on their poetry are notable and important.


Hardy, surprisingly enough, was raised in a Christian family and held strong faith in Christianity for the first part of his life. As he aged, however, Hardy began to wonder about the inconsistencies of life. If there really was a God, he asked himself, then why would there be such horrors in society and nature? Why would there be so much suffering in the world? These questions were being asked at around the time that Charles Darwin was revolutionizing the scientific community with his research on creationism. The ideas of natural selection and evolution coupled with the seeming randomness of life led Hardy to believe that God was either uncaring and unresponsible or simply did not exist. Hardy never was exactly sure about the existence of God, but he was often unable to marry his scientific principles to the ideals of religion, and thus found himself remaining agnostic.


The poem Hap demonstrates many of these issues that Hardy was facing. The first word of the poem, If, depicts the uncertainty of Hardys faith in both God and his own idea about what/who God is. If but some vengeful god would call to me / From up the sky, and laugh Though suffering thing, / Know that they sorrow is my ecstasy / That they loves loss is my hates profiting!, (Norton, 6) the poem reads, and we see that although Hardy is uncertain about the existence of God, he has some ideas about the ambivalence that God has if he exists.


Hopkins, contrastingly, would not have started Hap with the word If. Hopkins had a strong devotion to Catholicism, and eventually became ordained as a priest. He often used his faith as a source for his poetry, and throughout his works it is quite evident that Hopkins does not waver in his devotion to God, despite the unhappiness this faith has brought with it. The Habit of Perfection, a poem about a priest who has taken a vow of silence, demonstrates Hopkins zealousness in his faith. In that poem, the narrator seems as if he is unworthy of Gods love and thus becomes silent. The tone of the poem is an overzealous love for God rather than simple faith, and this overzealous love seems to stem from a kind of unworthiness of the narrator when compared to the creator. It is an important testament to Hopkins mental state about religion. Although the narrator obviously is too repressed to be happy, Hopkins seems to envy him and the strength of his servitude.


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Hardys The Subalterns also deals with servitude to a higher power, but the poems speaks of the randomness at which God works rather than Hopkins testimony that God is so wonderful as to deserve a vow of silence. The Subalterns speaks of some natural effects -- the sky, the North, sickness, death -- and how each of these things are directed by a stronger force (Norton, 71). This is implied to be God, and a personified death goes so far as to say that he is a slave to the schedule. The poems seems to demonstrate the indifference and randomness with which God runs the planet.


In He Never Expected Much, Hardy portrays the world as indifferent and void of passion (Norton, 87), but he might as well have been talking about God. At this point in his life (he was eighty-six years old), Hardy was getting more and more cynical about the existence of God, and the poem reflects his resignation that the world will not fulfill any expectations that religion asks of it. Hardy also seems comfortable with this fact, as the poem reveals a stoic persona that seems to be defeated by a haphazardly-run world and comfortable with this knowledge.


Hopkins instead felt more defeated by himself and his own inadequacy in the perceived eyes of God than anything else. Whenever Hopkins approaches God directly, as in the very direct [Though Art Indeed Just, Lord, If I Contend] (Norton, 107), he seems extremely fearful of even the thought of approaching God. What is meant to be a complaint for some of the injustices of the world turns into a passive, fearful, almost apologetic missive. Where Hardy took the injustices of the world to mean there really was not a God (or at least the declaration that he just did not know either way), Hopkins saw this to mean that the omnipresent God was punishing the people for evils. Hardy also felt that whatever was controlling the world was a passive being (He Never Expected Much), where Hopkins felt God was an active participant in the joys and sorrows of the world.


Another of the poems in which Hopkins demonstrates his belief that the stability of the world hinges on either Gods anger or Gods compassion occurs in his epic The Wreck of Deutshland (Norton, ). The poem speaks of a God with the power and wrath to bury a boat with a frown on his face (Norton, 4), then his ultimate mercy in saving some of the boaters from drowning.


Obviously, both Hardy and Hopkins felt that there was much suffering, pain, and hardship in the world. However, their views as to why this occurs are markedly different. Hardy feels that the reasons for these hardships exist because there may not be a God. Or, if there is, the God may feel that ambivalent and uncaring towards humans. Perhaps the creations of human beings were simply a mistake or an accident, and God felt little responsibility for them anymore. He especially demonstrates this in New Years Eve, in which an indifferent God ponders the passing of another year, then explains to one of his followers the following The he (says) My labours -- logicless -- / You may explain; not I / Sense-sealed I have wrought, without a guess / That I evolved a Consciousness / To ask for reasons why / Strange ephermeral creatures who / By my own ordering are, / Should see the shortness of my view (Norton, 77). Here, Hardy portrays God as a kind of bumbling supernatural being who admits that the human being experiment is not one that was undertaken with much consideration or though. Somewhat similarly, in Channel Firing (Norton, 77), Hardy portrays God as a mad scientist type figure, who watches over his subjects with an ironic edge. We get the feeling that God is actually being the conflict, and the war is a medium for entertainment itself. I looked Up From My Writing (Norton, 85) is a similarly cynical view on the world, as a pontificating Hardy is writing his story when the moon interrupts him. The moon, which seemed to be a symbol of the voice in the back of Hardys head, asks Hardy how he could be writing in a world where there is so much suffering. Hardys stoic personality in the poem shines through here, as he seems to be saying that not he, nor anyone else, has any control over the atrocities of the world. Al will be the same no matter what people do, so why should we bother? This implies that there is nothing from which to ask help, or no God.


Hopkins, on the other hand, has a much less cynical view of God. In Gods Grandeur (Norton, 101), the poet bemoans the destruction of the environment (which God created) by humans. The destruction of the environment could be seen as one of the reasons for punishment that god inflicts with his wrath on the planet and society. Hopkins seems to be saying, Did something bad happen? Then, yes, it was God, but it was your fault for _______. The guilt and anguish that Hopkins feels toward God is less cynical than Hardys agnostic views, but is no less unhealthy. Hopkins lived a short life filled with guilt and remorse, and any happiness that he felt was usually tempered by his attitude toward God. He was either disappointed in himself for not being as devout as he should be (The Habit of Perfection) or disappointed in other humans for their behavior to the things that God creates (Gods Grandeur). Hardy spent most of his life looking for meaning to it all, as his faith in religion was lost as he aged. Struggling in an era where Christianity was the norm, Hardy attempted to create an agreement between his own strong views as a realist and the views of religion. He failed time and time again as the random occurrence -- particularly the negative random occurrences -- of the world continued and increased. Hardy searched for meaning in his life, but ended up pessimistically resigning himself to the fact that the world was indifferent and uncaring (He Never Expected Much).





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