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Friday, October 7, 2011

World Religions

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World Religions


Eliade


1. What is religion?


a. Belief system that gives value or meaning to peoples existence


Order College Papers on World Religions




b. Personal religion versus institutional religion


. Myth/Mythic


a. Truth in an explanatory way


b. Attempts to explain religion


c. Presence of the sacred and profane


. Sacred and Profane


a. Modes of being in the world


b. Existing in relation to other things


c. Things and space are sacred because of a persons relationship with it


4. Sacred


a. Opposite of the profane


b. Cosmos


c. Order


d. Heterogeneous


i. Mixed kind


e. Must be assigned qualitative value


5. Profane


a. Chaos


b. Disorder


c. Homogenous


i. Same kind


6. Religious man


a. One who lives or tries to live in a sacred world


b. No religious man


i. Each person gravitates toward something


ii. Sacred has become lost


7. Cosmogony


a. The creation of the cosmos


b. Serial cosmogony


i. Cosmos is born of an existing cosmos


1. from a substantial change


c. before new cosmos


i. old must die


d. before cosmogony


i. must be a sign


1. hierophany


. manifestation


. theophany


a. contact with a divine power


4. hierophany


a. contact between levels


e. Contact between levels


i. Point


ii. From the fixed point the world spreads out


iii. A circle


iv. All points equidistant from the center


f. Threshold


i. Circumference of circle


ii. No value


iii. Must be acknowledged


g. Axis Mundi


i. Line through the center


ii. Pole, ladder, mountain, tree


iii. Center is most sacred


h. End of the world


i. Loss of center


ii. Loss of circumference


iii. Encroachment of the profane upon the sacred


i. Sign


i. Something that happens which no one has no control over


8. Sanctification of Life


a. Sanctify to make something sacred


b. Life is profane normally


i. Horizonatal line


c. Does this by Rites


d. Sacred time


i. Most sacred


1. cosmogony


. other moments also become sacred


ii. cyclical


iii. eternal


e. Profane time


i. Linear


ii. Durations


. What is time


a. Time is the measurement of change


b. Eternal exists outside of time


c. Does not change


10. Two types of Rites


a. Ritual


i. Reenactment of the original comosgonic event


ii. Makes people feel as if the moment exists


b. Rite of Passage


i. Celebrates the movement from one stage of life to another


11. Ontological status


a. To become anything else around the circle


b. Established


1. How are the rite of passage connected


a. Acknowledgement


b. Instigation


c. Initiation


d. Importance of death and rebirth imagery


1. Imprinting


a. At a point of high hormonal influx


b. People are prone to take on certain imprints


14. Rites of Passage in Life


a. Birth and naming


b. Baptism


c. Circumcision


d. Bar or bat mitzvah


e. Marriage


f. Childbirth


g. Last rites


15. Secular Rituals


a. Star spangled banner


b. Thanksgiving


c. Birthday party


d. Fourth of July


Black Elk


e. Rituals


i. Pipe smoking


ii. Dancing


iii. All part of great spirit


16. Vocab


a. Monotheism


i. Belief in on god


b. Polytheism


i. Belief in many gods


c. Pejorative


i. Derogatory


d. Polemical


i. Over dramatize difference


17. Black Elk


a. Native Americans


b. Came over in land bridge


c. Two cultures emerged


i. Farmers


1. mother earth


. priorities fertility


ii. Hunters


1. father sky


. priorities strength and masculinity


d. native American world view


i. where one fits in the world


ii. attitude towards nature


iii. plants animals men share an equilibrium


e. Ecological Aspect


i. Balance


1. natural world


. animals


ii. Normative


1. sets a value


. conservation


a. using resources efficiently


. minimum impact on the balance


4. replenish


5. efficient use


f. Spiritual Aspect


i. Spirit world


ii. Location


1. center of the world


iii. ontological value


1. more real than their world


iv. to enter the spirit world


1. vision dream through shaman


v. divination


1. advice from gods


. healing


a. medicine


b. power


c. charisma


vi. all must have vision before adulthood


1. so discover destiny


. not fate but direction of life


vii. In vision one sees totem


1. totem


a. manifestation of ones spirit as an animal in the spirit world


i. determines


1. characteristics


. new name


. compatibility


g. Shamanic Visions


i. Large scope


ii. Able to heal


h. Animism


i. Belief in life force or spirits dwelling in inanimate objects


i. Pantheon


i. Lexicon of gods


j. Great Spirit


i. Removed all power spirit


k. Elemental


i. Rain, lightening


ii. Don’t pray to god for rain, pray to rain


l. Object


i. Inanimate objects that appear to have spirits occupying them


m. Ghosts


i. People who died were unable to make transition


1. not rited properly


Hinduism


1. Not a religion


. a cultural distinction


. materials written in San Skrit


a. language of sacred prayers


b. losing much of the poetry


c. very complex


d. neologize makes up new words


4. When culture becomes extinct it becomes fragmented, increasingly incoherent


a. Hindu


i. Superimposition of Aryan culture onto the harapan culture


b. Persians reject Aryan influence


i. Zoroastrianism


1. negative reaction


. good and will gods and switched


5. Vedas


a. Sacred texts


b. Collection of texts


c. Authorless


d. Incoherent and doesn’t fit together


e. Does not mean a single veda makes no sense


i. Collection as a whole is inconsistent


ii. Unsystematic


f. Overtime people evolved


i. So did text


6. Canan


a. Authoritive core text


b. Vedas are canonized


c. Explanations


i. Long evolved


ii. Liturgical to be chanted or sung


iii. Believed that everything is made up of vibration


iv. Notions and thought are seen as substances


v. Move faster than light


d. Universe is a far reaching as the vibration will reach


7. Aum


a. The perfect sound of creation


b. Meant to reproduce every sound in the universe


c. Keep universe in balance


d. Sympathetic vibration if one thing vibrates


i. Other things will vibrate at the same frequency


8. 4 collections of Vedas


a. samhias


i. hymns


b. Brahmanas


i. Priestly liturgies


c. Aranyakas


i. Forest books


d. Upanishads


i. The end of the Vedas


ii. Vedanta


1. concrete


. Metaphysics


a. Tries to explain what I is in the outside world that cause the physical world to operate


10. Concrete


a. Specific and well defined


11. Abstract


a. Does not give specific examples


i. Takes an array of things abstract a common element


ii. No two instances of the element are identical


b. As Vedas become more abstract


i. they become more coherent


c. fundamental reality


i. center where everything stands


1. Dharma


a. Duty


1. RTA


a. The goddess of order


b. Symphony analogy


i. Dharma


1. sheet music


14. Determinants of Duty


a. Caste


b. Family


c. Age


d. Previous life


e. Gender


15. Brahman


a. Utterly abstract


b. Not this not that


c. Cannot be pointed to


16. Self


a. It must remain itself


i. As time passes the self does not change


b. Physical appearance


c. Personality


d. Memories


e. All theses things are constantly changing so it cannot be true self


f. Embodiment


i. Born


ii. Lives


iii. Dies


g. True self cannot be reincarnated because reincarnation is change


17. Jiva


a. Illusory self that goes through reincarnation


b. Changes slower than embodiment


c. Made up of the latent consequences of karma


d. Karma


i. Action


ii. Selfish action


iii. Requires more action


e. Jiva is the overflow of karmic consequences


18. Samsara


a. Cycle of death and rebirth


b. In an attempt to satisfy karmic consequences


c. Motivated by karma


d. Samsra sucks life sucks then you die


e. Every opportunity to be born you die


1. GOAL IS NO MORE SAMASARA


a. Nirvana


i. The end without a following beginning


ii. End of samara


iii. End of illusory self


iv. End of jiva


v. End of karma


b. Brahman


i. Truly abstract


c. Atman


i. True self


d. Fundamental realities


i. Most real


e. Eternal


i. Outside of time


f. Incomposite


i. Pure


ii. No parts


iii. Simplest


0. Ontological nondualism


a. There is only one fundamental reality


b. Neither nothing nor something


1. Nondualism versus monism


a. Everyminism is an implied dualism


i. To say something exists it has to be distinguished from nonexisistent


. People appear to be different because we bear the marks of kharma


a. But underneath were all the same


. Brahman


a. All that was


b. Somehow


i. Beginning Is not understood


c. I


i. Belief in the individuality


d. Lack


i. Once you think yourself separate from the whole you feel an emptiness for the whole desire to


e. Desire


i. Fill the lack


f. Action


i. Action to satisfy the desire


g. Kharama is action taken in vain


4. Yoga


a. Putting the reias on self-gratification


i. Helps to harness urges


ii. Also lives together the parts of the self


iii. Mind body spirit


iv. Whole is more than sum of the parts


b. Can be see as an action that integrates mind body and soul


i. For the moment a person escapes their own ego


ii. A yogi is someone who can sustain the moment


c. Yoga in the gita


i. Bhaktiyoga


1. devotion


. completely giving to someone else


. to think entirely of the object of ones desire and not of ones self


ii. Karmayoga


1. Action


. action acting on behalf of dharma


. just do it because its your duty


iii. Jnanayoga


1. wisdom


. acquiring understanding of the true self


. how to acquire such wisdom


a. meditation


iv. Most powerful yoga in Gita


1. bhaktiyoga


. devote to Krishna


. anyone can do it


5. Extrinsic Steps


a. Yama


i. Morality


b. Hiyama


i. Physical purifying


ii. Hygiene


iii. Diet


c. Asana


i. Physical postures


d. Pranayama


i. Breathing exercises


ii. Comes from food we eat


iii. Eating the sun


iv. Eating something that ate the sun


e. Pratyahara


i. Shutting out all the sensory


ii. Willful withdrawal of the senses


6. Intrinsic Steps


a. Dharana


i. Concentration


b. Dhyana


i. Meditation


ii. Realize that you are not your body


c. Samadhi


i. Perfect sameness


ii. bliss


Buddhism


1. Based on Hindu tradition


a. emerged as a rejection of some Hindu aspects


b. Orthodox


i. In line with standard doctrine


ii. Absolute authority of the Vedas


c. Heterodoxy


i. Follows more than one doctrine


ii. Does not believe in the supreme authority of the Vedas


d. Carvaka


e. Jains


f. Buddhism


g. Vedas


h. Priests


i. Caste system


i. Pramara


1. Valid means of knowing


j. Direct experience


k. logical


l. Samba


i. Someone told you


. No pragmatic


a. Dogmatic


i. Insist only certain doctrines are true


b. Pragmatic


i. Practical


. Rahula


a. Absolute truth


b. Nirvana


c. Unhelpful


d. Incoherent


e. no absolute truth in the world


f. truth is not an issue


4. Buddhism uses parables to teach


a. Parable of the raft


i. Buddha’s teachings


1. Buddhism offers suggestions of how to live


a. not truths


b. means to an end


i. not an addiction or an attachment


5. Critique of Hindu metaphysics


a. Parable of the poison arrow


b. Buddhists reject the ideas of Brahman, atman, fundamental realities


c. All questions metaphysics are based on assumptions


i. Cannot be or have not been proven


6. four noble truths


a. Fourfold implies four aspects of one concept


b. Axiom


i. Basis of system of proof


ii. Starting point starting assumption


c. Buddhism is neither to be taken on full faith


i. nor no faith


d. Only thing that matters is overcoming of Dukha


i. Suffering


7. Fourfold Axiom


a. Aspects


i. Dukha


1. suffering


. pain


. sorrow


4. All symptoms


5. Loss of who you are


a. What you lost was fundamental


6. more of an emotional anguish


a. response to loss


7. all like if Dukha


a. Dukha is inevitable


ii. Samudaya


1. Cause of Dukha


a. Diagnosis


. Tanha


a. Thirst


b. Cause of Dukha


. Dukha has many causes


a. But tanha is the closest


4. Thirst


a. The thirst that every time you try to satisfy it


b. It only gets worse


c. Continues across lifetime


iii. Nirvana


1. Prognosis


. cessation of Dukha


. nirvana is the end of tanha


a. end of Dukha


4. knowing what to do is different than doing it


iv. Marga


1. the path


. not steps


. 8 fold path


4. three categories


a. Sila


i. Ethical conduct


b. Samadhi


i. Discipline


c. Prajna


i. Wisdom


v. Self awareness is not self consciousness


1. self consciousness includes judgments


. self awareness lacks the judgment aspect


vi. Meditation


1. centered around visualations


a. visualize self as rotting corpse


b. deromanticising the embodiment


c. accepting the pain helps one to move past it


d. realizing the embodiment is not the self helps the realization that death is not all that important


8. Real


a. Causes and effects


b. Everything that can be said to be real is the cause and effect of everything else that can be said to be real


c. Conditioned genesis


i. Things are created conditionally


ii. Rules out the first cause


1. 1 link cycle


iii. posting first causes is as worthless as posting no cause


d. pratityasamutpada


i. attempts to explain the world and reality


. Proper understanding


a. Understanding the world in a way to overcome suffering Dukha


b. Pratityasamutpada


c. Experience of selfhood


i. Buddha does not deny the experience of self


ii. Experience has causes and effects


1. 5 aggregates


10. Anatman


a. No self


b. No unchanging thing


c. Cannot claim that there is not atman


i. Unsaying implies there once was


d. Pratityamaipada


i. Middle way


ii. Does not say things exist or not exist


11. Argument of Atman


a. Epistemologically incoherent cannot be proven to exist or not exist


i. Hindus


1. atman is utterly abstract


. no instance exists


. cannot be seen


b. Harmful


i. Causes Dukha


1. if you belief something for no reason and it causes you harm


. believe in something else


c. Alternatives


i. We can look for alternatives to the idea of atman


1. explain the experience of selfhood and draw different conclusions from it


a. without rooting it in a true self


1. Analytic Device


a. When the self is broken a part


i. We find the five skandas


1. Five Skandas


a. Aggregates


i. Whenever the aggregates are arranged in a certain way,


ii. The experience of a self takes place


1. if one of the five is missing the experience of selfhood cannot take place


b. Rupa


i. Form


1. anything capable of being served


c. Vedena


i. Feeling


ii. Sensation


iii. Anything you want to go towards away from


d. Samuna


i. Perception


1. webs of perception


. how things relate to everything else


e. Samskara


i. Karmic conditioning


ii. Knowing something because it was experience before predisposed in feelings actions based on past experience


f. Vijnana


i. Bifurcate consciousness


1. consciousness is split into two


ii. the goal is not to eliminate one of the standards


1. to eliminate the experience of self


. find the explanation for the experience


14. Buddhist meditation


a. An attempt to break a bad habit


i. Thinking of oneself as the self


b. Steps to breaking habits


i. Realizing that you have a habit


ii. Deciding to break the habit


iii. Get down to the root of the first thought of the habit


iv. By the time we realize a though


1. its too late


. stop the thought of self before it becomes entirely conscious


Daoism


1. Daoism


a. Daodejing


i. Untranslatable


1. Classical Chinese


. Language changes


. Social/cultural translation


ii. Context is lost


iii. Words taken at face value


iv. No one has a perfect understanding of this text


v. No grammar


vi. No masculine/feminine


vii. No tense


viii. No capital letters


ix. No articles


b. Origin of the text


i. 600 BCE � 50 BCE


ii. Dao De Jing


1. Tao Tech Ching


iii. Written by Laozi


iv. Zhou dynasty 100 BCE � 5 BCE


1. Warring states period


v. Daoism is a response to the breakdown of the Zhou dynasty


c. Confucianism


i. Thought that life was great in the early Zhou


ii. Suggests to do everything as they were done


iii. Conformity to ancient culture


d. Proto-Daoist


i. Non nostalgic feelings


ii. Left the cities


1. head for the hills


. Abandoned Zhou, start a new


e. Laozi


i. Wisest man in all of china


ii. Wants to leave the city


iii. Is told he can not leave until he wrote down everything he knew


iv. Brevity


v. Ambivalent


vi. Open to interpretation


f. Scholars say not a single author


g. Dao De Jing


i. Dao = under goes virtue


ii. De = virtue


iii. Jing = discernable threads


1. refers to any text with a discernable history


. made of transmission


iv. Dao has normative implication


1. the way of leaders is the way to live


v. Chinese


1. things don’t exist


a. they process


b. they do


. Everything is what it is


vi. Process of what they do is Dao


h. Ideal versus Actual Dao


i. In order for a Dao to be ideal


1. it needs to exist without interference


ii. Lots of processes


1. all occur at the same time


. all interacting


iii. Ideal Dao does not exist


i. Destiny


i. Ideal process of being a person


j. Dao used to describe how things would be if experienced no interference


k. Dao De Jing


i. Refers to all Daos


ii. Not The Dao


l. Heart is organ of thought


i. Emotion is feeling


m. De = not thinking before acting


i. Just take what comes naturally


n. Dao De


i. Easiest possible way of processes occurring


ii. Ideally processing in a natural way


iii. Least amount of effort


o. De = the quality of that which is most ideally Daoing


p. TaiJi (Tai Chi)


i. Not the martial arts


ii. The principle by which all things Dao


iii. Tai and Ji mean


1. extreme


q. Principles of Extremes


i. Ta Ji Tu


1. diagram of Tai Ji


ii. YinYang


1. opposites


. complimentary


. Yin


a. Traditionally taken to mean feminine qualities


i. Submissive/passive


ii. Creative


4. Yang


a. Masculine qualities


i. Active


ii. Dominant


iii. Strong or large


5. Newtonian conservation of Yin and Yang


a. Get more yin but be less yang


b. Eliade = Sacrifice


iii. Principles of TaiJi


1. whenever any process reaches its extreme in one direction


a. it becomes its opposite process.


. All Daos are oscillating


a. Balancing


iv. Paradox


1. seeming or apparent contradiction


. Lying Paradox


a. Everything I say is a lie


b. Real actual paradox


. Rhetorical


a. Paradox sounds like a paradox but all based on words


b. Looking for new ways of saying


v. Wei Wu Wei


1. Act without Acting


. Not complete passivity


a. Practical principle of Daoism


. getting out of the way of the pendulum


4. dealing with TaiJi


5. Acting without interface/effort (Dao)


vi. Preferences are


1. what causes acting with interference


. the more intent we are on our preferences


a. the more limited are options


. Less specific you are about views


a. The more you see


4. Wei Wu Wei


a. Unlimited possibilities


vii. Miaw


1. wonder


. childlike state


. Box = it can be anything


4. to become mature is to become more like a child


a. regain wonder


viii. Dao


1. process


ix. De


1. ideally


x. Jing


1. without interference


Judaism


1. Biblical


a. Bible


b. People of the book


c. Um Al Kitab


i. The mother of the book


d. God wrote this book in Gods language


e. Translated into human language times


i. Hebrew


1. Moses read and translated wrong


ii. Jesus


1. Christians focused on messenger


. not message


. lost scriptures


4. rewrote them


iii. Mohammed


1. will be lost prophet


. Arabic scripture correct


. Prophetic texts/traditions


a. Prophet


i. Messenger of god


ii. All people of the book received the same book


b. Judaism, Christianity, Islam are all Semitic Traditions


c. Semites


i. Jews and Arabs


. Judaism


a. Tend to read the bible as history


i. History of the human world


ii. History of gods intervention in such


b. Hebrew Scripture


i. Tanakg


ii. Torah


1. first 5 books of the scriptures


iii. Nevim


1. prophetic writings


. apocalyptic tone


iv. Kethbim


1. book of Job, etc, miscellaneous


v. Apocrypha


1. controversial materials


. questionable curiosity


4. Theological Conclusions


a. Creatio Ex Nihlo


i. Creation from nothing


b. Omnipotent


i. No limitations on power


c. Omniscient


i. No limitations on knowing


d. Above suggests he doesn’t make mistakes


i. Text suggests he does


5. Creation


a. 6 day model


b. Rvach


i. Gods life force (spirit of god)


c. Nefesh


i. Gods breath in Adam and soul


d. First distinction


i. Light and dark


ii. Produced heterogeneity into homogeneity


6. Introduction to distinction


a. Day and Night


b. Light and Dark


c. Bad versus Evil


i. Bad = pragmatic


ii. Evil = moral category


d. Every phase in process of creation


i. God sees that it is good


ii. Earth Good


iii. Hinduism/Buddhism


1. earth is a bad place and must escape


iv. Christianity/Judaism


1. earth is good place to be enjoyed


e. Second Day


i. Heaven and Earth


f. Third Day


i. Land and Sea


ii. Doesn’t create


iii. Reveals


g. Fourth Day


i. Sun Moon Stars


1. introduce time


. all calendars are based on movement of heavenly bodies


h. Fifth Day


i. Birds and Fish


i. Sixth


i. Land Creatures


1. Created in gods image


. God becomes increasingly more cosmic as book proceeds


. Humanoic


4. Maybe we don’t resemble god at all


5. We think whatever god things


7. Second Story


a. Not told in terms of days


b. Tells why


c. Conditions


i. Desert


1. no water


. no man till the land


ii. Water


1. before land came from water


. now water comes up from ground


iii. Adam of the earth


1. created to care for the land


iv. Plants Garden of Eden


1. First story


a. all food


b. no distinction


. Now


a. Tree of life


b. Tree of knowledge


c. Center of Eden


. Eliade


a. Cosmic tree


b. Bears fruit


c. Properties of gods


d. If god can threaten death


i. Adam was never immortal


ii. created moral


e. Tree of knowledge of Good and Evil


i. Moral Knowledge


ii. If eat then die on the spot


f. Animals


i. Meant to be companion to Adam


1. no mate


g. Woman


i. Her existence is dependent on Adams


ii. Adam has power over eve


8. Apparent inconsistencies


a. Order of creation


b. Woman and man created together


c. Emphasis


. Perspective Theory


a. stories are the same but from different perspectives


i. gods and humans


10. Lilith


a. Adams first wife


b. God creates Adam and Lilith


c. Lilith refuses to be subservient


i. Lilith kicked out of the garden


ii. God creates eve


1. eve is subservient


d. Written out of the bible by the male priests


11. Kabbalah


a. Mysticism


i. Becoming one with the divine


b. Trying to get to heaven requires climbing on the backs of demons


i. Gain power of them learn their name


ii. Only crated man


1. hermaphroditic


1. JEPD


a. Literary critical scholar


b. Multiple authorship theory


i. At least four authorial strands


ii. Almost every story in the bible is repeated twice


c. Several names of the lord


i. Jehovah


ii. Elohim


d. Priesthood


i. How priests should act


ii. How to treat priests


e. Deuteronomy


i. Seems to be completely separate


1. Fall from paradise


a. Common theory


i. God was testing Adam and eve


ii. Theologic problem


1. what does such a test suggest about gods omnipotence and omniscience


iii. Do Adam and eve deserve to be punished


1. much like children


. don’t understand disobedience


. do not know right from wrong


4. threatened with death


a. don’t know what death is


5. Cannot understand terms of the deal


a. Let alone consequences


iv. Why doesn’t god know what was going to happen


1. why is the tree in the garden to begin with


v. The serpent


1. god himself or the craftiest creatures


. Sent told by god to trick Adam and eve


. not Satan


4. may have been telling the truth


5. no clean instance of deception


vi. Issue


1. what was meant by the word die


vii. Outcomes of the serpent


1. have to slither on their stomachs


. people and snakes not compatible


viii. Adam Outcome


1. work for food


a. till the soil


. Condemns him to death


ix. Eve Outcome


1. painful childbirth


. under the rule of her husband


x. Outcomes not punishment


1. appears this way


xi. Fruit was a lesson


1. allowing to learn through choices


14. Fall from Paradise


a. God seems confused that humans will become as the god


i. Wanted to prevent this


1. knowledge of good and evil


. immortal life


. life in heaven


4. unlimited power


b. Why does god not want people to be like god?


i. Selfish reasons


1. competition


. war


. lack of leadership


ii. Unselfish reasons


1. cannot handle power


. all the power comes with great responsibility


iii. Eliade


1. one center (god)


. obscuring the distinction creates chaos


. the world relics on the distinction


c. Why does god destroy the world by flood


i. Wants to rid the world of evil


ii. Beneloheim Angels


1. sons of god are mating with human woman making mixed race


. intermixing god and man


. line has been blurred


4. order threatened World Ends


15. The Story of Job


a. Among the earliest materials in the text


i. Job


1. most faithful


. most righteous


ii. Righteousness


1. god-fearing


. sacrifice


iii. Job is very wealthy man


b. God is meeting with angels


i. Angels have no free will


1. the thought of Satan being angel does not fit


c. Irony


i. Accused of being spiritually polluted (leprosy)


1. when he was better than god


ii. was the only one righteous


1. wealthy wicked


iii. Unsettling unbalance


d. Happy Ending


i. His kids are still dead


1. even though he has new kids theyr not his


e. Jobs rewards


i. Occurs right after he intercedes on behalf of his friends


1. willing to forgive


ii. Not clear he is being rewarded for keeping faith


iii. Not offered


1. immortality


. life in heaven


iv. Given kids stuff


1. god always gives kids and stuff


16. Covenant promise


a. Seem to be undonctional


i. Requires nothing in return


b. What makes a covenant?


i. Cosmogonic


1. what come before no longer is


a. new center (notion of self)


17. Five Covenants (or 4)


a. Adam


i. No specific promise


ii. No use of the word covenant or bris


iii. Implicit promise


1. if they don’t eat the fruit of the tree, the could live in Eden


b. Noah


i. Uses the word covenant


ii. Seal


1. rainbow


a. used to remind that not to destroy the world by flood


b. smells sacrifice appears to be unconditional


iii. Bestowal


1. tells noah the can eat animals


. however no animals with blood (soul)


. Animals with blood are still alive


4. Dietary code (preliminary)


iv. Expectations


1. Prohibits killing


a. Moral code (preliminary again)


b. Obligation to procreate


c. Abram


i. Changed to Abraham


1. rite of passage


. change in social and ontological status


ii. Patriarchal Primogeniture


1. eldest son gets everything


iii. Abrahams vision


1. shamanic vision


a. shows destiny of a whole people


iv. The Promise


1. lots of descendents


. Lands (promised land)


. his people will be oppressed for 500 years before can have the land


4. Wealth


a. Lost the Egyptians


5. God


a. I will be your god and you my people


b. Chosen people


d. Moses


i. Agent of fulfillment of the Abrahamic Covenant


1. Moses is not circumcised


a. Jewish?


. Moses is given the torah


. 61 commandments


4. lord gives Moses his name


a. lord


5. leaves influence


a. people can get gods attention as never before


6. Establishes priesthood


a. Priest


i. Intermediary


ii. Aaron


1. first priest


iii. Perform sacrifices


b. Temple


i. When temple destroyed


ii. Axis Mundi destroyed


e. David


i. King of Israel


ii. God speaks to prophet Samuel


1. tells Samuel who he wants as king


. says to Saul to be first king


a. anointed


b. coroneted


. battle of attrition


a. champion


4. Champion of the Philistines


a. Goliath


b. Destroys all Jewish champions


c. David defeats Goliath


d. Philistines retreat


5. God says David is to be king


iii. God promises David a dynasty


1. every king of Israel will be from the house of David


18. Intertestamental


a. Covenant with David


b. If Jews do what is wrong in the eyes of the lord


i. he will destroy the kingdom


c. David’s son Solomon


i. Had a lot of wife’s


ii. Political Alliances


iii. Not one of his wives is Jewish


d. Israel splits into Israel and Juda


i. Syria destroys Israel


ii. Babylon’s conquer Juda


1. destroy temple


. center destroyed world in chaos


. ruling class captured by Babylonians


4. 80 years pass


a. those who left are dead


b. those who stayed are Babylonian


c. write down traditions


i. Talmud


iii. Line of David is Lost


1. records burned


e. Messianic Expectation “Anointed One”


i. Reestablishment of the line of David


ii. Reestablishment of a kingdom


iii. Rebuilding the temple


iv. All must take place in same spot


1. Biblical Judaism


a. No devil


b. No heaven or hell


c. Not the son of god or savior is the messiah


0. Sheol


a. Existence of the life after death by being remembered


1. Persians


a. Persians conquer Babylonians


b. Liberate Jews


c. Persians � Zoroastrianism


d. God and Devil


e. Heaven and Hell


f. Days of Judgment


g. Jesus is Jewish


i. Talks about Jewish Law


h. Emphasis in the gospels


i. Mark


1. humanity of Jesus


ii. John


1. divinity


iii. Matthew


1. Jewishness


Christianity


1. Early Christians were Jews


. Gospel


a. The good news


b. A few dozen gospels


i. Only 4 included in text


c. Gospels


i. Mark � 60


ii. Matthew � 70-75


iii. Luke � 85


iv. John 100-10


d. Disciples


i. Students of Jesus


e. Apostle


i. Messenger of the Gospel


f. Not necessarily written by persons who name they bare


g. First three gospels are synoptic (parallel Explanations)


i. Matthew and Luke may have been drawn from Mark


ii. All three based on one missing document on the life of Jesus


h. John has Completely Different structure


. Acts of the Apostles


a. Seem to have been written by the writers of Luke


b. Ecclesia


i. Community


ii. Founded by the apostles


4. Epistles


a. Letters of the apostles (Paul)


b. Written by Paul 45-50


5. Revelation (60-66)


a. Under the rule of Nero


b. First connection made between serpent in Eden and Satan


c. Year begins at the cosmogony


6. Roman Empire


a. Successes


b. Did not force assimilation


i. Allowed indigenous culture


c. Technology


d. Roads


i. Transport of army culture trade


e. Metal


f. Aqueducts and plumbing


g. Broken into districts with separate governors


h. Ruler of Rome


i. Augustus Caesar


7. Kingdom of the Jews


a. Judea


b. Ruled by Herod


c. Herods rule under roman authority


i. parasitic


ii. Governor (Roman) of district that includes Judea


iii. Painted as sympathetic


iv. Scholars believe is Blood thirsty


8. Essenes


a. Zealots over lapped


. Messiah is


a. Descendant of David


b. King of Israel


10. Herodians


a. Wanted a messiah who would institute the kingdom of Israel without interrupting the way things are


11. Zealots


a. Wanted overthrow of Romans


1. Essenes


a. Hoped for a celestial body to take them to heaven


1. Most turned back on Jesus


a. While talking to one group


b. He antagonized the other group


14. Crucifixion


a. Suffocation


b. Exposed to the elements


c. Social humiliation


d. Eliadically


i. Lowers social and ontological status


e. Made fun of


i. Crown of thorns


ii. Naked


iii. Here lies Jesus, king of Jews


iv. Disappointing to zealots


15. Intention


a. To prove that Jesus fulfills the prophecy of the messiah


16. Accusations against Jesus


a. Blasphemy


i. Heals


ii. Forgives Sins


b. Treason


i. Claims to be king of the Jews


17. Convicted by Romans for Treason


a. Crucifixion is a roman punishment


b. Mocked for his pretension as the king of Jews


18. Blamed on the Jews


a. Jewish people had the ability to save two criminals


i. Jews chose other man


1. Jesus Barabus


a. Son of the father


b. Was the wrong Jesus killed/


c. Ability to save Jesus was added later for the purpose of placing blame on the jews


1. Jesus and Jewish Law


a. Abolishes


i. Swearing in gods name


ii. Divorce


iii. Eye for an eye


iv. Dietary and hygiene codes


0. The law


a. Torah


b. The law


c. Scriptures


d. Commandments


1. Fulfill


a. Fulfills the predictions


. Complete


a. Implies law is missing something


i. not that the laws are incomplete


ii. need to be different


b. love thy neighbor


c. simplifies


d. complicates


e. eliminates priesthood


f. speaks common language


g. Not clear Jesus wanted to start new religion


i. Reform Judaism


. How did Christianity become something other than Judaism


a. Early forms of Christianity


4. Jerusalem � Jewish Church


a. Led by James, Brother of Jesus


b. His death in 66 AD that sparked Jewish Revolution


c. Very pure form of Judaism


d. Good at speaking to Jews, not gentiles


e. Says Christians must be Jewish


i. must convert


ii. circumcision


5. Saul


a. Hater of Christians


b. Vision of risen Jesus


c. Pauline � gentile


i. Not Jewish to covert


ii. Successful among gentiles


iii. Rivals Jewish church


iv. Thrives


1. survives


. Jewish suppression


v. Undermined by Jamesian Christians


vi. Gospel accounts are the stories of Pauline Christians


vii. Prove pauls church is better


d. Depiction of Jewish people


i. Stupid


1. Can not understand parables


ii. Peter


1. Unloyal


. Denies Jesus times


. Cannot walk on water


4. little faith


6. Coptic


a. Egyptian Christians


b. Already had a dead and risen god


7. Sabeans


a. Mentioned in quaran


b. Authority revised


c. John the Baptist as the Christ


d. Jesus sent to introduce john


8. Eastern Orthodox


a. does not except pope


b. comes from Pauline church


. Gnostic


a. Knowledge


b. Predicts Christianity


c. Argues god of Jewish Scriptures


i. Not real god


ii. Transcendent god


iii. Close to Hinduism


iv. Overrides god such as atman


v. God explodes into 100 rays of light energy


vi. Energy causes sparks that create waves of reality


vii. Our level is very dense and secondary


d. Demiurge


i. God of the level of reality


ii. Actions are the ones in scriptures


iii. Creates world out of self


1. organizing them


. makes 1 archons (builders)


a. create world � landscapes


b. makes little bodies and minds


. has sense of what humans should be


a. has to animate them


i. gets sparks from transcendent god


ii. your awareness is god operating through you


iii. sparks are drawn back to god


iv. keeping us ignorant by lying to us so we stay here


v. demiurge isn’t destroyed (reincarnation)


1. recycles sparks


iv. Transcendent god sends sparks through other levels to earth to tell us what we know


1. messengers of life


a. know their party of god


i. example Jesus


b. persecuted because against demiurge


c. First is serpent


v. In order for sparks to return to transcendent god must pass through challenges


1. each level


Islam


1. Muslims


a. All people of the book till a point


i. At what point is Muslim different


b. Ishmael


i. Child of Abraham with a slave woman


ii. Sarah gets pregnant


iii. Kicks Ishmael and his mother to desert


1. Ishmael gets mighty nation of his own


. Arab


a. Sons of Abraham from Israel


. Hebrew


a. Sons of Abe from Isaac


iv. Sibling Rivalry


. Mecca


a. Arab religion was animistic


i. Mecca culture was high society


b. Mecca was very cosmopolitan at the time of Mohammed


i. Important end cosmopolitan because


1. important economic site


a. camel caravans


. political site


a. tribal area


b. Camel Caravans


i. No social and ontological status so don’t matter


c. Manages treaties for the region


. religious site


a. pilgrimage site


b. pilgrimage


i. sacred journey


c. well becomes the basis for city of Mecca


d. Becomes sacred to Arabic culture


i. Marks Mecca as beginning of Arabic Culture


. Qiba


a. Big black rock (meteorite)


b. Sign from heaven


c. Site where sacrifice of Ishmael was to take place


d. Building surrounding site


i. Supposively made by Abraham and Ishmael


4. Mohammed


a. 570 CE


b. poor, orphaned, illiterate


c. gets job on camel caravan and promoted through ranks


d. Kdijah


i. Owner and widow of camel caravan


ii. Gets married and Mohammed takes over


e. Becomes dissatisfied with meccan culture and religion


f. In mountains


i. Hears voice of Gabriel (angel)


ii. First word is recite


g. Kdijah tells Mohammed to go back to the mountain because it might be god


h. Bits and pieces of revelation from god over next 0 years


5. Five Pillars of Islam


a. Center of life (axis mundi)


b. Creed/Motto/profession of faith


i. No god but Allah and Mohammed is his prophet


c. Charity


i. The giving of ones time effort etc


ii. Life is a test


1. test through adversity


. test by prosperity


. charity to pasts test


d. Prayer


i. 5 times a day


ii. you don’t need a mediator


iii. you must face Mecca while praying


iv. you have to do it prostrate or lying down


v. specific times


vi. demonstrates submission to god


e. The Pilgrimage


i. You got to go to Mecca


ii. Only once in your life


iii. Supposed to make your best effort


iv. You can change your name afterward


1. significant change in social or ontological status


. rebirth


f. Fasting during Ramadan


i. Consecrates the first revelation of the Koran


ii. Like a yoga


1. spiritual discipline


6. Jihad


a. Holy war or struggle


b. It has to be defensive


i. Not defensive of property


ii. Of Islam


c. Defense of the pillars


d. Shouldn’t fight during Ramadan or in holy place


e. Heaven and hell are present


f. Heaven


i. Image for men who live in the desert


g. Hell


i. Burning hotness


h. Greater Jihad


i. Test in yourself of temptation


ii. Internal


i. Lesser Jihad


i. External


ii. Declared by garden of the community


iii. Deliberated


7. Continuities between Jewish and Muslim


a. God is same god


b. Abraham’s life story


c. Prophets


8. Discontinuities between Jewish and Muslim


a. Jews don’t except Mohammed and Jesus


b. Isaac and Ishmael


c. Role of prosperity


d. Eschatology


i. Theories of the end


ii. Heaven and hell and devil


e. Benaielohem


i. Jews don’t believe


. Continuities between Christians and Muslims


a. Same god


b. Prophetic lineage


c. Have similar eschatology


d. Both universal


10. Discontinuities between Christians and Muslims


a. Up to Mohammed


b. Prosperity


c. Jihad


11. Muslims


a. Jesus


i. Was a prophet


1. one of the most important


ii. not divine


iii. product of virgin birth


1. just doing that Jesus is divine


iv. he did not die on the cross


1. Jesus barabus story


. could have been drugged to seem dead


. death on the cross


a. vicarious redemption and sin


i. Islam rejects vicarious sin and redemption and original sin





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