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Tuesday, December 13, 2011

Progressivism

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BLOCK THREE PROGRESSIVISM AND INTERNATIONALISM, 188-141


IDENTIFICATIONS


1. Lend-Lease Bill


Who-Spanish diplomat Enrique Dupuy de Lome, United States President William McKinley, William Randolph Hearst and his New York Journal


Custom writing service can write essays on Progressivism




What- The DeLome letter was a letter from the Spanish ambassador Enrique Dupuy de Lome, in Washington, D.C., to Don Jose Canalejas, in Havana, Cuba, that was intercepted by a Cuban agent, leaked to William Randolph Hearst, and published on the front page of the New York Journal. This letter was humiliating to President William McKinley, and ultimately increased the U.S.’s tensions with Spain.


When- written and published in 188


Where- Havana, Cuba and Washington, D.C.


Significance- The De Lome letter greatly increased the United States tensions with Spain. Then when the U.S.S. Maine was sunk in the Havana Harbor on February 15, 188, and 60 lives were lost, it was difficult for the United States to believe that the Spanish had nothing to do with this disaster. Two months later, in April, McKinley approved Congress’s resolution that called for the immediate withdrawal of Spanish troops from Cuba. Four days later, the Spanish government declared war. The DeLome letter instigated all of these events, ultimately leading to the Spanish-American War.





The first picture is Spanish ambassador Enrique Dupuy de Lome from


http//www.spanamwar.com/Delome.htm


The second picture is U.S.S. Maine in Havana Harbor from the website


http//www.socialstudieshelp.com/Lesson_60_Notes.htm


. Yellow Journalism


Who- Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst


What- Yellow journalism began through the fierce competition between Pulitzer’s New York World and Hearst’s New York Journal. It was used to attract more readers and to increase circulation. Some yellow journalism techniques include banner headlines, colored comics, and copious illustrations. Yellow journalism received its name when Hearst stole Pulitzer’s “The Yellow Kid” comic strip writer.


When- 180’s


Where- New York City


Significance- Through yellow journalism, it became common for newspapers to report everything through the editor’s eyes regardless of whether the information was inaccurate, biased, or true. Since the American public had limited sources to verify the information, newspapers received tremendous political power through the people. Because of this, yellow journalism played a key role in beginning the Spanish-American War by the New York Journal’s printing to the controversial DeLome letter on its front page.





The first picture is of the William Randolph Hearst and the second picture is of Joseph Pulitzer both taken from the website


http//www.spanamwar.com/press.htm


. Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty


Who- United States Secretary of State John Hay, Panamanian envoy to United States Philippe Bunau-Varilla, and United States President Theodore Roosevelt


What- This treaty was an agreement between the United States and Panama in which the United States would receive the rights to a canal zone ten miles wide in exchange for $10 million and an annual rent of $50,000.


When- November 10


Where- Panama and the United States


Significance- This treaty gave the United States exclusive rights and perpetual use of the Panama Canal. It also secured the United States’ position as the economic and political leader of the Western Hemisphere. Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines had already been established as official protectorates, and with this treaty came Panama. The United States also became free to transport good between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and to decide who else could have this privilege.


4. Roosevelt Corollary


Who- Theodore Roosevelt


What- This was a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine that justified American intervention throughout the Western hemisphere. It stated that the United States would intervene as a last resort to ensure that other nations in the Western hemisphere fulfilled their obligations to international creditors, did not violate the rights of the United States, or did not invite foreign invasions into the United States. This corollary mainly justified U.S. interventions in the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Mexico, Haiti, and Nicaragua.


When- December 104


Where- Washington, D.C., United States Congress


Significance- This corollary came about as Europe began to use force in order to urge several Latin American countries to repay their debts. Thus, America began to fear European intervention in Latin America. Roosevelt worried that intervention would take away the United States’ dominance in Latin America. To keep European powers out and ensure financial stability, Roosevelt issued this corollary. The fact that Roosevelt tied this corollary to the Monroe Doctrine was ironic because the Monroe Doctrine had been issued to prevent European intervention in the Western hemisphere, and the Roosevelt Corollary was issued to justify American intervention in the Western hemisphere.





The above picture is President Teddy Roosevelt taken from this website


http//www.theodoreroosevelt.org/life/biopictures.htm


5. Lusitania


Who- Great Britain, Germany, United States


What- Lusitania was a British ocean liner sunk near Ireland by a German submarine. She was believed to be carrying ammunition to be delivered to the Allies in England. One thousand one hundred ninety-eight people drowned as a result of the explosion. This included 18 Americans.


When- May of 115


Where- south of the coast of Ireland


Significance- When Germany sank Britain’s Lusitania, the American people were outraged. The United States protested Germany’s action and warned them to limit their submarine campaign against Britain. However, when Germany continued unrestricted submarine warfare, the United States entered World War I in April of 117. It was the sinking of the Lusitania that created enough turmoil among the American public to allow the United States to enter into the war. This event also proved that the civilized warfare methods of the 1th century were a thing of the past.





The above picture is a postcard that was issued to commemorate the sinking of the Lusitania. It features the Lusitania and her captain, William Turner. This picture was taken from the website


http//www.gwpda.org/naval/lusika00.htm


6. Fourteen Points


Who- President Woodrow Wilson


What- Fourteen Points was a peace settlement proposed by Woodrow Wilson following World War I. This proposal called for open covenants of peace that were freely arrived at, freedom of navigation of the seas, removal of economic barriers and establishment of equality of trade conditions, and also outlined territorial adjustments. Further conditions of this settlement were evacuation of Russian territory, evacuation and restoration of Belgium territory, evacuation of French territory, readjustment of Italy’s boundaries, safeguarding of Austria-Hungary, evacuation of Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro, secured sovereignty of Turkish portion of the Ottoman Empire, and erection of an independent Polish state. The last point called for a League of Nations to enforce the peace.


When- January 118


Where- Washington, D.C. and the United States Congress


Significance- This proposal showed President Wilson’s eagerness to end World War I with both sides participating in a lasting peace. These points transformed the concepts of free trade, open agreements, democracy, and self-determination into concepts of foreign policy. They were also the basis of Germany’s surrender to end the war. It further pressed that morality should be the basis for all foreign policies.





Above is a picture of President Woodrow Wilson taken from the website


http//www.angelfire.com/in/wilson/wilson.html





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