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Thursday, February 23, 2012

Personnel Management and Human Resource Management

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Personnel Management


Personnel Management with its narrow focus on administration, reactive behavior and severance from the management mainstream - lacked top management support and made itself vulnerable to irrelevance amidst the business and organizational changes. From its traditional association with provision of welfare, policy interpretation and corporate police function, it thus justifies the notion of personnel managements image as a bureaucratic nuisance.


What Is Human Resource Management?


Human Resource Management (HRM) involves the productive use of people in achieving the organizations strategic business objectives and the satisfaction of individual employee needs. As HRM seeks to strategically integrate the interests of an organization and its employees, it can be a major contributor to the success of an enterprise because its positional influences can affect customers, business results and ultimately shareholder value. Effective HRM stays relevant to the business as a function by aligning its objectives with the organizational business goals and rewarding through achievement of performance based objectives.


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Definitions of Human Resource and Personnel Management


David Guest, a British academic, in his 18 Personnel Management (January) journal, questioned the difference between HRM and personnel management. An answer to this question was provided by Torrington and Hall (11) who suggested that personnel management is workforce centered and therefore directs itself to employees, while HRM is resource centered and concerns itself with the overall human resource needs of the organization.


An early comment on this question was made by Armstrong (187)


HRM is regarded by some personnel managers as just a set of initials or old wine in new bottles. It could indeed be no more and no less than another name for personnel management, but as usually perceived, at least it has the virtue for emphasizing the virtue of treating people as a key resource, the management of which is the direct concern of top management as part of the strategic planning processes of the enterprise. Although there is nothing new in the idea, insufficient attention has been paid to it in many organizations. The new bottle or label can help to overcome that deficiency.


HRM could be described as an approach to, rather than as an alternative to, traditional personnel management. When comparing HRM and personnel management, more similarities emerge than differences. However, concepts such as strategic integration, culture management, commitment, total quality, and investing in human capital, together with a unitary philosophy (the interests of management and employees coincide), are essential parts of the HRM model. And this model fits the way in which organizations have to do business and manage their resources in the environments in which they now exist. This realism of the HRM model increased the popularity of the usage of the term HR as an alternative to personnel management.


Increasingly, human resources have been seen as the competitive edge essential for a company to be successful. Managers adopt a strategic management of human resources by moving their human resource needs in line with the business needs of the future, i.e. they support the companys strategies.


PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT AND HRM


HRM, in contrast to personnel management, is characterized by


q emphasis on employees as valued resource and a critical investment to increase the competitive edge of each organization


q integration and alignment of HRM objectives with the overall organizational business objectives and strategies


q a proactive stance towards HRM challenges especially in the arena of change management amidst business changes


q an emphasis on a direct approach to satisfying the individual needs of each employee


q stress on the importance of organizational culture and values in promoting cohesiveness and unity of employees, of creating and maintaining a culture which is consistent with organizational objectives


q the assumption of a unitary model of industrial relations instead of a pluralist model underpinning traditional personnel management


q a shift and sharing of responsibility for HRM with line managers, with HRM adopting a role of service provider rather than staff specialists


The 1st century human resource imperative is to raise the companys human capital to sophisticated levels which produce competitive advantages for the enterprise. Human resources can accomplish only if it dramatically redefines itself from administrator, reactor, and bureaucrat to strategist, businessperson, and marketer.


APPROACHES TO HRM


While HRM professionals and line managers are responsible for ensuring that employees are managed in such a way as to facilitate achievement of organizational objectives, the policies and practices they initiate will be affected by the organizations values and philosophy - and by the values and beliefs managers have about employees. There are two organizational approaches to managing staff instrumental (or hard) approach that stresses the rational, quantitative and strategic aspects of managing human resources; the humanistic (or soft) approach, which emphasizes employee development, collaboration, participation, trust and informed choice in order to generate resourceful employees/contributors to the organizations strategic business objectives. The hard approach essentially views employees as cost which needs to be used efficiently. This performance oriented hard approach creates industrial conflicts due to the emphasis on individual performance. The soft approach views employees as an asset which needs to be invested in and developed.


In some organizations, both hard and soft approaches guide the development and implementation of HR policies. These organizations have identified core employees (for example, employees who deliver the essential service or product of the organization) who are likely to be offered security of employment, attractive compensation and benefits, and career development opportunities. Non-core employees have limited, if any, job security, compensation held to minimum levels, and limited, if any, career development opportunities. Non-core employees are likely to be unskilled or semi-skilled workers (that is, employees who can fairly readily be replaced) or workers who may undertake activities which can be outsourced.


Both hard and soft approaches to HRM are unitarist in nature. In other words, HRM posits a relationship between the organization (employer) and employees as one characterized by one locus of power (management), shared objectives (that is, managerial and employee objectives are congruent or if not congruent, compatible), and conflict is aberrant. In other words, management knows what is best for employees - even when it hurts.


HRM Types


Technician


Personnel administrator safeguarding company interests through corporate policing.


Welfare Worker


Relationship based with concentration on social, welfare and clerical activities, leaving all key HRM activities for line management.


Theoretician


Concerned with the professional status of HRM through emphasis on theories and professionally interesting activities.


Professional


Business driven, change catalyst, concentrates on value added HR activities that enhances competitive advantage.


HRM and Industrial Relations


The business oriented, proactive and unitarist HRM approach contrasts with the traditional industrial relations approach, which seems narrow, pessimistic and static.


A New Mandate for Human Resources


It has been stated by Ulrich (18) that ‘The activities of HR appear to be and often are disconnected from the real work of the organization’. He believes that HR ‘should not be defined by what it does but by what it delivers’. According to Ulrich, HR can deliver excellence in four ways


THE NEW ROLE OF HR MANAGERS


Strategic Partner


HR should become a partner with senior and line managers in strategy execution, helping to improve planning from the conference room to the marketplace. Consequently, the HR manager must develop business acumen, a customer orientation and an awareness of the competition to be able to link business strategy to HR policies and practices.





Administrative Expert


It should become an expert in the way work is organized and executed, delivering administrative efficiency to ensure that costs (efficiency) are reduced while quality (effectiveness) is maintained. HR professionals must be able to re-engineer HR activities through the use of technology, process engineering and total quality management.


Employee Champion


It should become a champion for employees, vigorously representing their concerns to senior management and at the same time working to increase employee contribution, that is, employees’ commitment to the organization and their ability to deliver results. To enable employees to successfully perform their jobs, HR professionals must be able to represent their interests and find new resources (e.g. become involved in decision making, increase commitments, share in economic gains, etc.


Change Agent


Being a catalyst for change within the organization, the HR manager should lead change in the HR function and develop problem-solving communication and influence skills. It should become an agent of continuous transformation; shaping processes and a culture that together improve an organization’s capacity for change.


HRM and Management


Although management as a whole encompasses HRM, HRM is related to all other aspects of management. This is so because the purpose of HRM is to improve the productive contribution of people to the organization in ways that are strategically, ethically, and socially responsible. In order to provide a more value-added role, HRM must evolve from a maintenance role to one, which is more proactive in providing services to enhance competitiveness. The HR department exists to support managers and employees as they pursue the organizations strategies. However, to guide its many activities and support the managers who operate other parts of the organization, HR departments must have objectives.


The Objectives of Human Resource Management


Managers and HR departments achieve their purpose by meeting objectives. Objectives are benchmarks against which actions are evaluated.


Organizational objective


The HR department exists to help managers achieve the objectives of the organization. For example, Hewlett-Packards HR department implemented sophisticated information systems that assisted the department in cost savings of $5 million a year.


Functional objective


To maintain the departments contribution at a level appropriate to the organizations needs. Resources are wasted when HR management is more or less sophisticated than the organization demands.


Societal objective


To be ethically and socially responsive to the needs and challenges of society while minimizing the negative impact of such demands on the organization. Government has legislated some areas of societal concern The Employment Act, The Central Provident Fund Act, The Workmens Compensation Act, The Trade Unions Act, etc.


Personal Objective


HR department that assist employees in achieving their personal goals which in turn enhance the individuals contribution to the organization, thereby increasing the organizations ability in attracting and retaining the capable employees. Many aspects of human resource management contribute to a good quality of working life, for example, providing training and development to improve the employees skills and knowledge; management practices encouraging greater employee empowerment through decision-making, etc.


The Relation of Activities to Objectives in Human Resource Management


Management Objectives Supporting Activities


Societal Objective 1. Legal compliance


. Benefits


. Union-management relations


Organizational Objective 1. Human resource planning


. Employee relations


. Selection


4. Training and development


5. Appraisal


6. Placement


7. Assessment


Functional Objective 1. Appraisal


. Placement


. Assessment


Personal Objective 1. Training and development


. Appraisal


. Placement


4. Compensation


5. Assessment


The Service Role of a Human Resource Department


Whenever possible, responsibility for people management is devolved to the line managers, the role of personnel professionals is to support and facilitate line management in this task, not to control it.


Krulis-Randa, J. (10)


As members of a service department, HR managers and specialists do not have authority to manage other departments. Instead, they have staff authority, which is the authority to advise, not direct other managers. Line authority is the right to direct the operations of departments that make or distribute an organizations products or service. Line managers have line authority to make decisions about production, performance, and people.


Functional authority is the right given to specialists to make the final decision in specified circumstances especially in highly technical or routine decisions. When the cost of not following the HR departments counsel is high, top management may replace staff or advisory authority with functional authority over specific issues.


The use of line, staff and functional authority results in a dual responsibility for human resource management. Both line and HR managers are responsible for employee productivity and the quality of work life.


Proactive versus Reactive Human Resource Management


Reactive human resource management occurs when decision-makers respond to HR problems. Proactive human resource management occurs when HR problems are anticipated and corrective action begins before a problem arises.


Managers adopting a reactive approach to problem solving are usually faced with inappropriate and costly consequences. This is what Storey (1a) refers to as the non-interventionary role in which HR people merely provide a service to meet the demands of line managers.


Effective and efficient HR departments anticipate impending problems and challenges before they arise so as to proactively tackle them. Strategic human resource management demands HR department to proactively provide a competitive advantage through human resources. At a more strategic level, HR specialists take on a proactive role. They act as business partners, develop integrated HR strategies, intervene, innovate, and act as internal consultants and volunteer guidance on matters concerning upholding core values, ethical principles and the achievement of consistency.


Strategic Management


To achieve its objectives, every organization must ensure all its resources and functions are well managed and fully and appropriately utilized. Strategic management identifies the strategic goals of the organization and translates them into specific objectives and defines the mechanisms and resources required to achieve those objectives.


Strategic management is concerned with identifying the organizations business, defining its market, and developing the appropriate approaches to that market.


HRM AND STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT


It is the responsibility of Human Resource Management (HRM) to ensure that the organization manages and utilizes its employees - its human resources -efficiently and effectively to achieve the organizations strategic goals.


To do so, HRM operates at three levels


1. Operational


ð the short-term


ð day-to-day function


ð service delivery


ð administrative


1. Managerial


ð the medium-term


ð development, establishment and implementation of activities, processes and practices by which the organization obtains and allocates the resources required to achieve objectives.


1. Strategic


ð the long-term


ð policy formulation


ð goal setting


ð organizational planning


The operational and managerial levels of HRM are undergoing change within the organizations. Increasingly, as organizations recognize the need for, and actually undertake strategic planning, HRM is seen as a vital part of that level of functioning of the organization as well. Also, increasingly, the operational aspects of HRM are devolved down the line, away from personnel administrators.


At the managerial level of HRM - the level at which HRM policies are implemented, HRM practitioners often operate as either internal or external specialist consultants. They work with line managers to develop, implement, and monitor the implementation of HR practices which give life to HR policies and advise line managers regarding specific HR issues and challenges.


HRM is responsible for developing and implementing personnel policies and practices, which facilitate an organizations ability to recruit, select, utilize, and develop staff to meet current and future organizational requirements. For HRM to be effective, it must address the strategic objectives of the organization.


Need for HR Strategy


Ever-increasing pressures have forced managers to critically rethink their approaches to HR management. Managers thus must adopt a strategic mindset or way of thinking about the management of people. By ensuring that HRM is strategically aligned with the organizations overall business objectives, HRM utilizes the workforce as a competitive advantage for long-term business success.


Aims of HRM Strategy


HRM strategies outline the organizations people objectives and must be an integrated part of the organizations overall business strategy. HRM strategy aims to enable the organization to achieve its strategic objectives by


ü ensuring that all business planning processes emphasize people as its main competitive advantage


ü all involved in strategic planning have an understanding and appreciation of HR concerns


ü aligning the corporate business objectives and the objectives of the HR function


ü designing and managing the culture, climate and organizational processes of the business to ensure that every employee contribute effectively and efficiently


ü identifying the core competencies and the expertise (people) needed to build and maintain those competencies


ü ensuring the resourcing activities of the organization contribute to the development of competencies in the short-and long-term


ü assessing the performance requirements needed to reach the organizations strategic business objectives, and deciding how the requirements should be satisfied.


ü reviewing and improving the overall commitment of the organization


Strategic HRM Objectives and Plans


Strategic HRM objectives can be linked to strategic organizational objectives such as


Ø cost containment


Ø customer service


Ø social responsibility


Ø organizational effectiveness


STRATEGIC APPROACH TO HRM


If an organization is to grow and remain competitive, its HR objectives and strategies must achieve the best alignment or fit between external opportunities and threats and the internal strengths and weaknesses of the organization.


Assessment of Influences


Organizations and their HR departments are open systems that are affected by the environment in which they operate. In order for managers and HR departments to respond proactively, they must have an awareness of the external and internal or organizational influences in which they operate.


External Influences


Externally, organizations are affected by economic and social trends, changing technologies and government interventions. The external environment is constantly changing and may be turbulent, even chaotic through the forces of competition in national, European and global markets.


Technological Challenges


The introduction of computerization/automation into the workplace may result in considerable changes to systems and processes. Different skill sets are required as new methods of working are developed. The result may be an extension of the skills base of the organization and its employees, including multi-skilling (ensuring that people have a range of skills which enable them to work flexibly on a variety of tasks, often within a teamworking environment). But it could result in obsolescence of skills and a reduction in the number of jobs (downsizing). New technology can therefore pose a great threat to employees. The evolution of the knowledge-based economy also demands staffing of different kinds of employees and people management where intellectual capital is the leading edge in such an economy.


Economic Challenges


Changes in the business cycle and the subsequent changes in organizations’ business plans create changing HR needs especially in manpower utilization. Staff shortage during boom times and redundant workforce during economic downturn are some of the issues that HR has to tackle. Proactive HR practices are seen in the usage of peripheral workers (subcontractors, temporary staff) and outsourcing work to external service providers, thus reducing employment costs and enabling the enterprise to be nimble enough to adopt to fluctuating business activity. Tele commuting (working from home through extensive use of information technology) for office executives is another trend towards flexible HR practices.


Government Challenges


The Singapore government adopting an active role in the revisiting and updating of labor legislations in order to remain competitive as a developed country. Amendments to the Retirement Act to accommodate an aging workforce and changes to the Central Provident Fund to maintain cost effectiveness of labor are some recent government involvement in ensuring the relevance and competitiveness of the laws in the employment relationship. For managers and HR specialists, government involvement requires compliance and proactive efforts to minimize the organizational consequences.


Internal Influences


Unions


Unions represent an actual challenge to unionized companies and a potential challenge to companies that are not unionized. The collective agreement limits the HR activities of supervisors and HR department. The challenge to achieve company objectives without violating the agreement is created. For some companies such as Motorola, the HR challenge is to discourage unionization of the company by offering benefits similar to those unionized companies, thus resulting in a spilling effect.


Information Systems


Information Systems improve the efficiency and effectiveness of information retrieval from the HR Information Systems for employees’ data. Such data storage also creates another issue of safeguarding of employee privacy as increasing computer security is emphasized within the profession.


Organizational Culture and Conflicts


In the light of increasing incidents of mergers and acquisitions, HR department also have to deal with culture integration of two companies and stabilize the changes that resulted from the merger or acquisition. Otherwise, in order to stay competitive, successful companies advocates strong values, beliefs, assumptions and symbols that define who the organization conducts its business. It tells employees how things are done, what is important, and what kind of behavior is rewarded. Thus, it is important for management to foster a culture that promotes the achievement of the organizations strategic business objectives.


Organizational structure


The effective implementation of an organizations strategy requires management to ensure that the organizations design helps achieve its strategic objectives. HRM is particularly concerned with the organizational structure because it can directly affect employee productivity and behavior.


Evaluating HRM Objectives, Strategies and Policies


Þ commitment


Þ competence


Þ cost effectiveness


Þ congruence


Þ adaptability


Þ performance


Þ job satisfaction


Þ employee motivation


THE HRM CHALLENGE


As Dave Ulrich (18) points out, environmental and contextual changes present a number of competitive challenges to organizations, which mean that HR has to be involved in helping to build new capabilities. These challenges are


Ø Globalization requires organizations to relocate people, ideas, products and information around the world to meet local needs. New considerations for relocations are volatile political situations, contentious global trade issues, fluctuating exchange rates and unfamiliar cultures.


Ø Profitability through growth � creativity and innovation are key qualities that organizations want to utilize as competitive advantages in order to gain greater revenue growth.


Ø Technology � the challenge is to integrate technology and utilize it to improve productivity in the workplace.


Ø Intellectual Capital � The challenge to organizations is to attract and retain talented individuals to drive a global company that is responsive to changes and sensitive to customer needs.


Ø Change, change and more change � the greatest challenge companies face is adjusting to � indeed, embracing � non-stop change. They must be able to ‘learn rapidly and continuously, and take on new strategic imperatives faster and more comfortably’.





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Wednesday, February 22, 2012

Lot's Wife

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The poems that I have read were ¡°Lot¡¯s wife¡±, ¡°Richard Cory¡± and ¡°warren Pryor¡±. Those poems reminded me how our day-to-day lives affect what we think and the ways we act. How and why lot and his wife, Richard Cory and ¡°the people on the pavement¡±, Warren Pryor and his parents looked the world and their lives diversely.


When we read ¡°Lot¡¯s Wife¡±, it is easy to find out that Lot was a saint. He looked the world and his life through the God¡¯s words, all of his every day life was prayer and communicating with God. Just like what we read in this poem said ¡°It is easy for eyes that have always turned to heaven not to look back.¡± Lot could easily obey what God had told him and headed himself to ¡°Zoar¡± without looking back. It was all because he was not really live his life in that town, all his spiritual life was related to God. On the other hand, his wife lived in a normal life. It was her who did all the house work, fed the children, and dealt with all the problems that happened in their realistic life with her neighbors and friends. That was the reason she could not help herself to look back. She might think that her whole life was ended when the town was damaged, so it was not so important if she could get to ¡°Zoar¡±.


Richard Cory had everything; he was well-knowledge, rich, honorable and handsome. Just like ¡°the people on the pavement¡± thought ¡°he was everything to make us wish that we were in his place.¡± That summer night when Richard Cory committed the suicide, he left such a big question to ¡°the people on the pavement¡± that was ¡°what was the purpose of lives¡±. They thought Richard¡¯s life was their dreams, but it was exploded. The author never mentioned about why Richard Cory chose to die, from my points of view, maybe his life too perfect, it made him felt so empty and boring. But those kinds of stuff would never seem understandable for the people who struggle for their living for every single day.


When Warren Pryor felt ¡°like a young bear inside his teller¡¯s cage¡±, and ¡°aching with empty strength and throttled rage.¡± His parents thought ¡°he was saved from their thistle-strewn farm and its red dirt.¡± This is the most ironic part of this poem, Warren Pryor did what in his parents¡¯ eyes was good for him, and left himself in those painful dissatisfaction. His parents thought they made him away from the hardest life in ¡°the stony fields¡±, but they would never thought about it was not what Warren¡¯s choice at all, and how much that Warren loved their farm as a place where he had grown up and belonged to.


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In conclusion, those three poems mentioned us a lot about people in different religions, different social classes and different generations have totally different viewpoints about their lives and dreams. It is hard for one to understand another because the people¡¯s concept of lives are depended what they experienced and what they learned.





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Handmaids Tale

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Is the book a Handmaids Tale considered a feminist book? Many readers choose to believe so butI on the other hand disagree with those people. Atwood is showing us the flaws that are inbeded in our society about how the treatment of women is sometimes unjust. There are many parts in the book that contain evidence of a distopian society. The women are classified with in many ways such as they have to wear different colored dresses that resembles what rank they are like the handmaids in red, the Marthas, the Aunts, and the Commanders wife in blue. The handmaids were given a new name like Offred, Offwarren, and Offglen wiith all of them beging with Off- and te ending is to show which commander whom they belong to. There is a great decrease in the birth rate and every month the handmanids have a sexual intercourse with their Commanders in hope that they will become pregnant. Even if one does become pregnant there cna still be birth defects or with the baby diying which is very common. Offred was married to Luke whom now she bearly remembers what he looks like and she also had a daughter whom she never mentions her name in the novel. She is not allowed to speak her real name and she does not even mention it to the reader either. Her Commander invites her to his room adn she is curious to what he wants with her but really all he want to do is play Scrabble which is forbin for her because she is not allowed to rea or write. Eventually after so many visits he gives her a magazins but she is concerned wether or not to take it from him thinking that he is trying to trick her. But she doestake it from him and she questions him on how he got it because all of the magazines had been burned and he just simply said all but one.


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Tuesday, February 21, 2012

Explore the relationship between Antony and Cleopatra and why it leads to tragedy.

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The relationship between Antony and Cleopatra is one of great complexity. Both Antony and Cleopatra have personal faults, which contribute both to the downfall of their relationship and eventually the true tragedy, of their deaths. Many events are called tragedies but few deserve this title. A tragedy occurs when a noble character falls from a position of grace due to faults inherent in his/her own character or that of the society in which he/she live. Unfortunately once the events are put in motion nothing can stop the inevitable consequences. There is no question about the extent of their love towards each other as it is clearly evident that they adore and crave the other, it is just their inability to commit that creates the ultimate problem. Their love is apparent from the very first occasion on which Cleopatra initially attracted Antony. Her true beauty could be no better displayed than on that night as Enobarbus describes.


The barge she sat in, like a burnished throne


Burned on the water. The poop was beaten gold;


Enobarbus describes it as though it was a magical, charming event and is complimentary towards Cleopatra. Agrippa, however, views the queen as some what different to that


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He ploughed her, and she cropped.


These two contrasting views truly reflect the conflicting personalities of Cleopatra which eventually eradicate their relationship. One description being of a charming nature, the other of Cleopatra being nothing more than a sexual object. Agrippa is commenting on Cleopatra’s relationship with Julius Caesar, and is well aware of her seductive nature and has little true respect for her


Royal Wench!


Antony is a figure of great importance to the entire Roman Empire as well as Cleopatra and therefore has many commitments, all of which are demanding on his time. Antony won his position as one of the three rulers of the world by conquering the deceitful Brutus and Cassius. One aspect of Antony’s appeal is that of his reputation. Just as Caesar portrays, Antony as a great man at war, Cleopatra views Antony as a hero and a superior man in comparison to others


… Thou didst drink


The stale of horses and the gilded puddle


Which beasts would cough at.


.Throughout “Antony and Cleopatra” Antony prioritises his time inappropriately, devoting more time to that of pursuing his love, Cleopatra. Even when Antony is concentrating on matters such as war, Cleopatra interferes with his judgement and distracts him. Such concerns are echoed by Enobarbus


“Your presence needs must puzzle Antony”


Enobarbus is proven correct when Antony decides to fight at sea instead of at land which he is strongest at. Cleopatra of course supports this because the Egyptians are strongest at sea and Cleopatra, although with her inexperience of tactical ability at war wishes to be a part of Antony’s cause. The result of this was to have Cleopatra sail away from war knowing all too well that Antony shall follow. When Antony confronts her she behaves in an innocent manner. Cleopatra, one of many different aspects of her character which are to be displayed throughout


O my lord, my lord, forgive my fearful sails!


I little thought that you would have followed


Antony has an uncontrollable passion for Cleopatra, and he uses the language of affection when talking about her and to her


Now, my dearest queen...


Most sweet queen…


It is this passion which clouds his reasoning, resulting in him deserting his duties to his people. Antony is throughout most of the tragedy dividing his time between being in Rome and then in Egypt. This is true to such an extent that sometimes even within one scene Antony has made the trip from Rome to Egypt and vice versa. Whenever he demonstrates such passion towards Cleopatra he degenerates into a love struck fool. It isn’t that Antony is incapable of balancing both duties, it is because such a task would require super natural powers, and however great Antony is perceived he is only human. Cleopatra has such a demanding nature that it would take all of Antony’s efforts to please her. Controlling an empire is equally as demanding. Instead of focusing his efforts on one of the two tasks Antony attempted to juggle them both, this is a key factor in the breakdown of their relationship. Antony complicates his mind as he is unable to decide who to devote himself to. Consequently he is torn between a world of love and passion with the queen of Egypt and his role as a Triumvir.





Cleopatra is a very glamorous and regal queen; she has a sincere obligation to “her” Egypt so much so that she is at times unable to even recognise the intentions and needs of Antony. Externally it appears that Cleopatra is not concerned about the love interest of Antony, but she is of course infatuated with him from the very start as in Act 5 Scene 1. Cleopatra is missing Antony madly and talks of her love for him


“Note him, good Charmian, ‘tis the man but note him!”


Cleopatra is aware of the power that she holds over Antony and the whole tragedy consists of Cleopatra domineering Antonys emotions. Always over dramatising events, but this is of course, what entices Antony


Antony Now my dear queen


Cleopatra Pray you stand further from me


This is Cleopatra’s skill, at times she has Antony at the edge of anger and then at the tip of love itself, but Cleopatra is only content if she is in charge, she does not wish for the relationships control to be out of her reach. It is not just Antony who Cleopatra has as an admirer, many who meet her are captivated by the extent of her regal personality and majestic ways. As conveyed by Enobarbus


…… Other women cloy


The appetites they feed


But she makes hungry


Where most she satisfies


This is the first introduction of the imagery of food being used in connection with Cleopatra. As though once introduced to the queen your appetite for her is endless, this is so for Antony. Cleopatra talks of herself


My Salad days,


When I was green in judgement, cold in blood


Salad being used to represent her fresh and healthy personality, whilst “cold in blood” suggests she is unconsciously talking of her temperament of going from hot to cold so quickly on Antony. Cleopatra’s appearance is mentioned by the talk of food, her attractiveness being obvious as reference of Cleopatra being a “yummy” food.


He will to his Egyptian dish again


Antony and Cleopatra both have the same problem in terms of their relationship, neither one of them is willing to sacrifice their commitments and allow them to devote their attentions to the other. Their love was continuously flawed by responsibilities elsewhere. This is due to Antony having the Empire to govern and Cleopatra having Egypt to care for. For the love of two such important figures to be successful, there can be no interference. Throughout the tragedy there are such enormous gestures of love from Antony to Cleopatra and vice versa. An example is when at sea during the war Antony follows Cleopatra away from the battle despite being well aware he should not. Theses gestures, however are never carried over and used as a solid platform to allow their love to develop, instead they squander the opportunity for eternal happiness and continue with the on going “cat and mouse” saga which is their relationship. They willingly talk of their love, as being on scale to the rest of the world if not bigger, seeing nothing as important enough to interfere with their love. This can be no truer than when Antony is married to Octavia for the sake of peace, yet it is clear where he longs to be. This is ironic, seeing how their love seems stronger when they are apart.


And though I make this marriage for my peace, I’th’ East my pleasure lies


In Act I scene 1 Antony talks to Cleopatra about their love and dismisses the duties he has neglected for her sake.


“Let Rome in Tiber melt and the wide arch


Of the ranged empire fall; here is my space”


This use of cosmic imagery is popular with both Antony and Cleopatra, with it being an ideal way to express their feelings towards each other. It is most commonly when apart that they express their true feelings, with a slight suggestion that when together all is not what they anticipated. This could be a result of two such dominant characters not always being able say the words of love with the presence of the other placing a block on their hearts freedom of speech.


It would appear that he places Cleopatra above his duties to Rome. But it is evident that Antony is unable to prioritise and instead attempts to manage both commitments. If blame was to be found anywhere then it would fall at the feet of Cleopatra, with her unpredictable mood swings and such a diverse range of characteristics. This can be demonstrated through the different titles used by people when regarding her. In Act 1 Scene 1 (I.i.10) Philo and Demetrius refer to Cleopatra as a lustful “gipsy”. (I.i.50) Cleopatra is labelled a “wrangling queen”, (I.iv.1) an “Egyptian dish”, ( II.vi.1) all of these labels are part of the problem. Antony doesn’t know who he loves let alone who doesn’t love him. Cleopatra’s sometimes heartless attitude towards Antony is destructive to them both. Instead of welcoming such attention from one of the rulers of the world, Cleopatra attempts to play a game, a game where there can be no victor.


If you find him sad, say I am dancing; if in mirth, report That I am sudden sick.


Whilst Antony unwillingly participates, he is tormented throughout, with his death perhaps being an escape from the anguish of being unable to have Cleopatra to himself.


Commitment is a big issue for both Antony and Cleopatra, neither one was able or maybe willing to make a definite decision on what they want from the relationship, it was also the fear of the unknown. Although they were both figures of great importance, they still had the human emotions that everybody else had to deal with. This is the cause of the tragedy. Neither Antony nor Cleopatra was able to satisfy both their personal and work needs. Nobody could predict the outcome of them coming together although it was strongly believed that it would be a great triumph for love. Evidently, it could be claimed, that they were unable to overcome such uncertainties


Both Antony and Cleopatra had reputations, it is evident that neither was willing to risk damaging this. By allowing their true emotions to be displayed to one another. This was of course a tragedy in itself, if either one of them had of gone that step further and sacrificed their other commitments then maybe their love could have flourished instead of their life’s ending. However I don’t believe their love would have flourished the initial appeal was that of Antony having his empire and Cleopatra her Egypt and the consequential power and respect. Take these away and both wouldn’t have appeared so attractive to the other. One cannot claim that their love would have been strong enough to succeed in different circumstances because if their love really was that strong then why didn’t it work. Although they loved each other, their love was based on adversity and conflict, and this is always a dangerous platform for any relationship.





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Friday, February 17, 2012

How does Shelley evoke a sense of horror in Chapters 4 and 5 where she describes the construction and ‘birth’ of the creature? Do you think she was successful in awakening thrilling horror, making the reader dread to look around, curdling the blood and qu

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Mary Shelley wrote this novel in 1816, after a nightmare, when she was just 18 years old. Mary, her husband and the poet Lord Byron were snowed in inside a villa in Switzerland. They discussed ideas of scientists, God and the powers each possesses. In the nineteenth century, science was a relatively new idea but it was very controversial, as many people felt threatened by it. They decided that science was trying to overpower religion and endeavouring to shatter all Christian beliefs about life. There were ideas about how a body came to life; Christians believed God gave it a soul, and scientists considered the body solely parts linked together. This is why Frankenstein was considered a horror story, as it explored how powerful science really was and also the dangers resulting in playing God.


Shelley uses a number of techniques throughout Chapters 4 and 5 to evoke a sense of horror, including the language that is used. Victor’s personal thoughts during these Chapters, give us, as readers, an insight into the mind of a man who wants to discover the cause of life and be remembered thereafter, “ A new species would bless me as its creator and source; many happy and excellent natures would owe their being to me.” (p51). Also the fact that Victor recognizes himself being in a position which is at the boundary of attained scientific knowledge, and unknown theories, which could revolutionise the way scientists thought, “I found so astonishing a power placed within my hands” (p51). We are also told what Victor intends to do, ”I began the creation of a human being.” (p51). These thoughts shock the readers as they probably feel that no one should try and take God’s place in giving life. These would have been particularly disconcerting in the Victorian era, when the ‘Religion vs. Science’ battle was underway. However in Chapter 5, after the creation of his ‘human being’, he is filled with regret as he realizes he will not be known as the first person to create a man, but a monster.


The research that Victor carries out in order to create this being is equally frightening. The descriptions are very detailed and are certainly enough to send a shiver down the spine. We are informed of how committed Victor is to his work, he says he was, ”engaged, heart and soul, in the pursuit of some discoveries which I hoped to make.” (p48). We can see he was devoted to his work and determined to succeed. We also learn, “Two years passed in this manner, during which I paid no visit to Geneva.” (p48) This shows that he cut himself off from family, friends and even his future wife so as to complete his experiments. We also learn that not only did he spend two years straight on this project, that he also spent day and night, without sleeping, trying to figure out the cause of life,” Soon (I) became so ardent and eager that the stars often disappeared in the light of morning whilst I was yet engaged in my laboratory.” (p48). This gives readers the image of Victor being compared to a zombie, which is rather alarming how much time was spent doing immoral research and experiments. We also get another image, “The moon gazed on my midnight labours” (p5). As evil spirits are associated with night, particularly around midnight, it suggests he is evil and this almost compares him to a werewolf due to this night factor.


The mention of the moon also suggests that only the moon knows what he has done, as he used the cover of darkness, when people were asleep. We are told that the two years of research was full of mainly failures than successes, but Victor would not give up, “Sometimes on the brink of certainty, I failed; yet still I clung to the hope which the next day or next hour might realize.” (p5). This shows how deep Victor’s determination for success is, which in itself is frightening, as he would have to have done many immoral and revolting procedures in each failed experiment within that long time span. It also seems that Victor has failed to consider the consequences of his actions.


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“Now I was led to examine the cause and progress of this decay and forced to spend days and nights in vaults and charnel-houses” (p4). This is disturbing for the reader as the very thought of being in the presence of dead bodies is sickening, never mind watching and recording their decaying process. Victor says he was “forced” to research in tombs and rooms where bones were stored, when it is obvious he forced himself to visit them. This is an example of his own ambitions and obsession as he spent so much time in unnatural places. We also wonder how any sane person could cope being among the dead, but then Victor tells us, “a churchyard was to me merely the receptacle of bodies deprived of life.” (p4), so we can conclude that he shut off all his emotions and his fear. It is rather horrific that Victor did not consider a graveyard as sacred or holy, but a place for materials, and those bodies to him were just parts and not deceased human beings. We can see that he has a lack of respect for the dead and possesses purely immoral thoughts.


In regards to the grave digging he carries out, he says, “I dabbled among the unhallowed damps of the grave” (p5).


This is a disgusting image as it suggests that Victor frantically dug into the ground with his hands in order to obtain his human materials. The word “dabbled” is usually associated with sorcery, which suggests he is evil. Victor tells us he, ”…tortured the living animal to animate the lifeless clay” (p5) which gives an image of him finding other creatures like worms and he disturbed their habitat just to get body parts.


Shelley gives us a horrific, detailed description of his workshop and how he hides his work from everyone on page 5, “I collected the bones from charnel-houses… I brought my work near to a conclusion”. Victor acknowledges his workshop as a “slaughter-house”, “dissecting room” and “my workshop of filthy creation”. The fact he calls his experimental room these names suggest he’s aware what he is doing is wrong and gives various disgusting images to the reader. The slaughterhouse reference makes us think of slit throats, and therefore a visual image of blood covering the laboratory. The dissecting room reference shows that he cuts up bodies for research and this makes us feel uneasy as it suggests that body parts were lying around the room, decaying naturally, and therefore giving off a nauseating smell.


We now view a different side of Victor than was seen at the beginning of the book, when he was content and respectful. Victor tells us that throughout the two years of research, “I grew alarmed at the wreck I perceived that I had become; the energy of my purpose alone sustained me” (p54).


Throughout Chapter 4, we are given many images of pregnancy and birth, as the creation of the being is compared to being born. These images are not necessarily directly connected to the being’s creation, sometimes with actions of Victor himself. Images of the baby growing inside the womb and the conception process are given by phrases such as, “Who shall conceive the horrors of my secret toil” (p5) and “I did not watch the blossom or the expanding leaves” (p5). Images of labour are given by quotes such as, “unrelaxed and breathless eagerness” making us think of giving birth and “a resistless and almost frantic impulse urged me forward” (p5), which makes us think of contractions.


The work Victor carries out is frequently referred to as labour, which suggests he considers it as painful, taxing and tiring as the labour a woman goes through. For example, “After days and nights of incredible labour and fatigue, I succeeded in discovering the cause of generation and life” (p50), “my painful labour” (p50), “inconceivable difficulty and labour” (p51) and “my labours would soon end” (p54).


We are also given images of actually giving birth, “No one can conceive the variety of feelings which bore me onwards” (p51) and “I could not tear my thoughts from my employment” (p5).


The power of pregnancy is conveyed as the being Victor brings to life is referred to a “creation”, and suggests the woman is powerful as she has the ability to create a new life. This is why using all the images of pregnancy are horrific to readers as they are used in comparison with the creation process. Pregnancy is seen as a natural and wonderful experience, but in contrast Victor’s creation of the being is unnatural, immoral and disturbing.


On the actual night of Victor giving the body life, the atmosphere which exists is frightening and is enough to make the reader sense something awful is going to happen as a result of Victor’s ambition. We are told the date setting is “a dreary night in November” (p55) at one in the morning and that the weather was bad, “rain pattered dismally” (p55). We are also told that Victor worked almost in darkness with the exception of a “half-extinguished light” � a candle. Victor later reminds us of the weather as being “dismal and wet” (p57) and when he runs out of his laboratory to avoid his creation he becomes, ”drenched by the rain which fell from a black and comfortless sky.” (p57).


Shelley does however leave an air of mystery as to how the creature is actually created, this is frightening as it leaves us to our own devices, and the imagination is a powerful tool which could conjure up many horrific theories as to how this deed was done. Although Shelley does suggest electricity is used in the creation process, “I collected the instruments of life around me, that I might infuse a spark of being into the lifeless thing that lay at my feet.” (p55).


The first thing the creature does when it comes to life repulses the readers and makes us feel uncomfortable, “I saw the dull yellow eye of the creature open”. This suggests disease as it is yellow, and also the thought of being looked at straight in the face by this creature is fear-provoking.


We must also remember what the being actually looks like. The descriptions given, with a few exceptions, describe how a baby looks after being born. On page 55-56 Victor describes his creature’s physical appearance. We are told its limbs were in proportion, that it has “watery eyes” (p55) and that its complexion was “shrivelled” (p55). Here Shelley compares the being to a new born baby, which reminds the readers how unnatural and immoral Victor’s action were.


We are also told the being was “of gigantic structure” (p51) and “8 foot tall” in Chapter 4, so this is reinforced on page 55. We are informed on page 55 that “his (the being’s) yellow skin scarcely covered the work of muscles and arteries beneath”, that it had “lustrous” black hair, black lips, and “teeth of pearly whiteness”. This description is repulsive in itself, and makes us feel disgusted and sick at the thought of gazing upon this being.


Victor calls his creation many things such as “wretch” (p56), “miserable monster” (p56), “catastrophe” (p55) and “hideous guest” (p5), which give us as readers an idea of how terrifying the creation’s appearance is. He also tells us how he feels about the experience and how much he had previously considered this day to be a day that would live in infamy, “I had desired it with an ardour that far exceeded moderation” (p55) and how he wishes he’d never brought the body to life, “but now that I had finished, the beauty of the dream had vanished, and breathless horror and disgust filled my heart” (p55).


The first thing Victor does after bringing the being to life is rushing out of the laboratory, collapsing on his bed and falling into a deep sleep. During this sleep he dreams about his fianc�e Elizabeth, but has a premonition of her death. This is ironic as his life could be compared to a nightmare and lets the readers decide why the dream is significant.


As soon as Victor awakens from his dream, the creature is standing over him and reaches to grab him. This is a frightening image which has also been portrayed in many other horror novels and films. It is used as it makes the audience or readers feel unsettled and occasionally they would feel the need to look behind them to ensure nothing was there that could harm them. Shelley is suggesting by this image that the creation is a living nightmare from which he cannot escape and emphasises that it will always be around. We can tell that Victor himself is afraid of the creation, firstly because he calls it hideous and ugly, and secondly due to the detailed descriptions of the physical symptoms that he experiences, “I started from my sleep with horror; a cold dew covered my forehead, my teeth chattered and every limb became convulsed” (p56). These symptoms make readers empathise with Victor and we can almost feel his fear. Victor then describes how he’s feeling and the position he is in by quoting a stanza from the poem ‘The Rime of the Ancient Mariner’ on page 57. This shows that he cannot find the words to express himself and so must use the words of another. The line, “…a frightful fiend/ Doth close behind him tread” describes how Victor feels about the creation. He knows it will never leave him in peace and he will always have to look over his shoulder.


Victor then runs into his old friend that he hasn’t seen since he started his research, Henry Clerval. This meeting takes Victor’s mind off what has happened briefly as he feels “calm and serene joy” (p58) but this emphasises to us as readers how unusual what Victor did was and the fact he comes across a scientist who doesn’t do anything like that, is a contrast. Also the fact he hasn’t seen Clerval for two years emphasises how cut off from society and normality he has been. Shelley places the incident of Victor and Clerval immediately after the bringing to life of the creature to give the readers a break from the scary, unnatural descriptions. The tension steadily built up throughout the two Chapters and the meeting can be considered an anti-climax, but the tension re-surfaces as Victor proceeds to bring Clerval back to his apartment. Victor “trembled excessively” (p58) at the thought of his creation being in the apartment waiting for him when he returned. Victor walked back “with a quick pace” (p58) and he tells us “a cold shivering came over me” (p58). He also comments, “I dreaded to behold the monster, but I feared still more that Henry should see him” (p58) which conveys his emotions at that particular moment towards the prospect of the monster anticipating his return.


To add more tension to this moment, Victors tells us he “threw the door forcibly open…but nothing appeared.” (p58-5) and he remarks, “I stepped fearfully in the apartment was empty and my bedroom was also freed from its hideous guest.” (p5). This gives the readers a sigh of relief, but they know that the creature will return in some form. It also gives them an incentive to read on and they await events in Victor’s future regarding the ‘miserable monster’ he has created.


In conclusion, I feel Mary Shelley achieved exactly what she set out to do. She wanted to write a story to “awaken thrilling horror � one to make the reader dread to look around, to curdle the blood, and quicken the beatings of the heart” (p7) and with the evidence I have gathered, I feel she has done just that mainly with the use of language and her gory, terrifying descriptions of research, creation and what the creature does once it has been given life. It is a well-written and enjoyable book with a sense of horror throughout.





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Thursday, February 16, 2012

Criminal Justice

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Avoiding “War On The Wharves” Is The Non-Confrontational Policing of Major Industrial Disputes “Here to Stay”?


The 18 Australian maritime dispute, heralded as the “War on the Wharves”, failed to culminate in full-scale pitched battle between union picketers and the police.


The relationship and protocols that have been developing between policing and unionism in the 180s and 10s were fundamental in avoiding violence at the HUA picket lines. Police, acting with restraint and apprehensive of potential violence, generally sought to maintain public order and control through a consultative and non-confrontational approach.


Historical perspective


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In belligerent industrial times such as the early 180s and the late 10s, policing was inclined to follow the paramilitary path of a legalistic and repressive approach. And unionists have perceived polices as the agent making it possible for the employer to continue production by the use of scab labour, the enemy of the unionised workforce.


During relatively peaceful industrial times, police have often found that discretion was a better method of preserving the peace and marinating legitimacy in the eyes of the populace than prosecuting the law to its fullest.


But sometimes the police-picketers violence are caused by government and employer push for decisive police action; police willingness to confront and defeat the perceived enemy; belligerent and violent picket activities; media and public pressure for police action.


“Blamey Cossacks” versus the stevedores


On November 18, about 150 stevedores, contrary to union leaders’ pleas, broke a police line about fifty strong and stormed Station Pier as they rushed towards the P and O liner, Chitral. “The crowd simply, by weight of numbers, brushed the police aside.” And police seen conflict as a realm in which they must win in order to preserve law and order and maintain their future authority. Allan Whiteeaker died as a result of a bullet wound to the neck inflicted by police and the stevedores went crazy and berserk and as a result, two constables were seriously injured. This situation shows that potentially unpredictable and explosive character of police involvement in industrial disputation.


According to public order theory, it indicates that state’s force, in the form of aggressive policing, can actually escalate the tensions and potential violence of industrial conflict. Today, police who encounter industrial picketing are unarmed, for their own safety as well as that of the public. Using force to disperse a surging crowd without intending to arrest any of them is a feature of 0th century public order policing.


The policing of the 18 maritime dispute was directed and over sighted by a very different group of police leaders; many tertiary-educated and trained in management practices. Modern police command is aware of lessons of the immediate past in policing public order situations, the ubiquitous nature of video cameras at potentially violent situations and the potential civil litigation damages against police.


Policing the 18 Waterfront dispute


In the 18 waterfront dispute, the state police and traders hall councils had been developing procedures and protocols in relation to industrial disputation. For the modern policing ideally keeps industrial peace by reasonable compromises with strikes, by routine procedures, and by tactical negotiation and flexibility.


As a result of violent clashes in the 180s, Victoria Police and the Victorian Trades Hall Council (VTHC) established professional protocol arrangements to deal with potentially volatile situations. And the MUA picket line was officially sanctioned by the VTHC, it was recognised by Victoria Police. The Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) executive have developed a reciprocal union policy in relation to authorised strikes and pickets.


The peaceful, non-criminal pickets at the Patrick terminals around the Australian ports were the visible and symbolic centre-piece of the union’s campaign, the focus of national and international media coverage and the platform of civil disobediences.


The MUA, fully supported by the ACTU, realised that it need public support if it was to achieve the reinstatement of its members. MUA officials pledged to police that the MUA would maintain control of its peaceful assembly. A ban was imposed on swearing, racial abuse and alcohol at Fremantle Dock. And the MUA made commitments of no violence, only routine yelling at change-overs of non-union labour; police agreed not to employ shields, batons and horses to intimidate protesters.


As a result, the pitched battles on Australian docks of the late 10s were not repeated in 18, despite much media speculation of a “Waterfront War.” Because the union organisers were aware of lawful police authority to arrest, move and detain, since the police had the power to act under summary offences legislation against people who were obstructing and hindering people in the execution of their duties.


In April-May 18, the protocols for regular meetings and accepted behaviour between union and police negotiators were intensified and co-ordinated, and such compromises challenged the traditional culture which meant that the employer merely needed to contract police who would clear pickets by either persuasion or force.


Criticism of police inertia


Criticism by some conservative politicians focused on the police’s inaction against the MUA assemblies. Police command, exhibiting independence from political pressure, ensured that police members would not be manipulated in the dispute. At East Swanson Dock, Patrick’s Chairperson Chris Corrigan, having assumed that police would clear terminal entrances, condemned the police for failing to fulfil statutory obligation to remove people obstructing commerce, the pickets being neither peaceful nor legal. Same as Stuart Wood and Des Moore are both condemned the failure of the police to enforce the law in the waterfront dispute and alleged that police avoided confrontation with large groups, which encourage violent action by protesters, and require to return to Blamey-style policing response to picketing.


But Corrigan appears to have acted upon the traditional assumption that if the employer demands police intervention to clear passage that police will naturally concur without consideration of the consequences. In face, the ultimate responsibility of police is to preserve life and protect property. A modern policing tactic, designed to attain these objectives and common to both minor and major industrial disputes, is to hasten slowly, even at a pace, coz it provides time for the industrial protagonists, employers and workers, to consult and possibly negotiate the conflict without police intervention. The question remains from whom or from where does an aggressive employer seek a coercive force to remove pickets, if dissatisfied with the role of the public police.


The police commissioners at their annual conference in Melbourne on 1 April issued a consensual statement advocating a “negotiate” and “non-violent” resolution of the maritime dispute. The police would act as necessary to deal with unlawful blockades, but reaffirmed their strong desire that the maritime dispute is settled through negotiations and the legal processes rather than violent conflict. After the commissioners’ communiqu�, there was no further attempt by police to remove picket lines around the Australian ports.


The vicissitudes of policing the Liverpool lockout


In late September 15, dock workers were locked out by the Mersey Dock and Harbour Company (MDHC), and there was no trouble despite the dockers’ protest. The cost to the Merseyside Police of deploying a daily police presence including overtime payments until March 17 was between 1.5 and million pounds, and the routine monitoring as not proper police work; the police did not appreciate being at the Liverpool Docks at 5 am in the winter. The dockers were not in conflict with the police, but they perceived the police as being on the side of the MDHC in the dispute. And the vitriolic dockers conclude that the police department certainly supported the dock company and alleged that the OSD have intimidated, beaten and even tortured dockers and their supporters in the pursuit of keeping dockers out of their jobs.


Robocops


0 September 16, a rally of three hundred dockers and supporters erupted into violence and 41 were arrested. The police blamed the presence of eco-warriors and members of the Reclaim the Street brigade for the violence.


Conclusion


Police on the Austalian wharves sought to accommodate the picketing and community protests through a restrained, consultative and non-confrontational strategy. Violence is in neither the police nor the unionists’ interest.


Unlike the suppression of Stevedores in 18, the police during the 18 waterfront dispute were praised by union officials but criticised by the employer.


The future policing of industrial disputes depends fundamentally on police organisation being able to maintain their operational independence from all interested parties and being prepared to deny automatic response to employer demands. Even the non-confrontational approach has been used, but the latent coercive capacity of police even when the overall strategy has been one of peace-keeping and consultation.





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Wednesday, February 15, 2012

Earnings Management Abuse

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Recently, we reviewed an article from the American Accounting Association, titled, “The Numbers Game”. The article, discussed the recent trend of companies becoming more concerned with meeting or exceeding their earnings estimates and less concerned with truth and reality. Mr. Levitt began by addressing the problem of ‘earnings management’, where the financial statements of a corporation are manipulated to meet the predicted earnings expectations for that period. The pressure in recent years to meet these expectations has grown tremendously with adverse affects in the public’s perception of the company’s who do not meet them. This obsession has caused and is currently is causing some companies to take more risks when reporting their financial results. Creative accounting has taken on new meaning in recent years. The principles of accounting were developed to be flexible in order to meet the ever changing needs and expectations of the business world. This flexibility ensures adaptation as circumstances change, but this flexibility means the financial players must hold themselves and each other to the highest standards of objectivity, integrity and judgment (Levitt). The accounting professional is very concerned about this trend because it will lead to an erosion of the confidence in the financial reports of companies.


Financial reports play a vital role in our economy, as noted in the article; the American economy is the envy of the world. Our efficiency, liquidity and resiliency stand second to none (Levitt). Various groups rely on the significance and importance of the financial information that is contained in the statements. The investing public expects the information to be timely and accurate. If companies do not provide reliable data then the relationship between the investors and the company begins deteriorating. This in turn will cause great disruption in the investment community and investors will not continue to invest their funds with these companies.


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Tuesday, February 14, 2012

Classification Essay, Types of Drivers

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Since I have gotten my driver’s license I have noticed four unique types of drivers everywhere I go. I see at least one of these everyday and it makes my entire ride almost unbearable. I am sure that many people have come across the aggressive driver, the uncertain driver, and the slow driver, and you may also be classified under one of these at one time or another.


The aggressive drivers are seriously the best drivers overall, and they have to be. If they weren’t such great drivers they would get into much more accidents then they do. These drivers have the uncanny ability to squeeze through the smallest openings as they weave through every car that gets in their path. They always seem to be in the biggest hurry as they drive inches behind your car waiting for the opportunity to pass you. Then once they pass you they give you some gesture, like you were going twenty miles under the speed limit when actually you were going over the speed limit.


The slow drivers are another type and are always those eighty-year-old grandparents that go at least ten miles under the speed limit at all times. They’re usually always driving cars that look almost as ancient as themselves. These types of driver also have the special ability to know when you are in a hurry and get in front of you while your driving on a one way street. While they’re in front of you they go 5 in a 45 mile per hour zone and they stop early whenever they see something suspicious in front of them. Even if it is a bicyclist that has five feet of room to spare the slow driver will slow down even more to be careful as they can.


Then there is the uncertain driver who never really knows exactly where they want to go and flashes his blinkers in every direction. They get in the right lane right in front of you, slow down, and are about to turn when they realize they are going the wrong way. Then the car jerks and they continue to drive right in front of you. Like the slow driver the uncertain driver drives at slow speeds but then speeds up when he realizes what speed he is going. The biggest problem is you have no idea where they are going and neither do they.


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These drivers are always the ones who get into the most car accidents. Even though the aggressive drivers are best overall it is inevitable that their dare devil driving will get them into a car accident. The slow driver always seems to get into a lot of accidents that they usually consider is not their fault. They could be stopping suddenly for something that spooks them and the unsuspecting motorist behind them may crash into the rear of their car. Then comes the uncertain driver with their constant lane changing and not knowing where they are going. They inevitably switch lanes and crash right into the side of another vehicle. All of these drivers have their problems but even I am sometime classified as one of these and I feel I am a very good driver.





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Monday, February 13, 2012

Abortion

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Imagine if your mother instead of having conceived you had had an abortion done. As a consequence, you would not be here, breathing, hearing, seeing, living. Now, imagine those defenceless human begins which are now being toyed with the idea of being thrown away as though they were simple waste. Has modern society changed so much that the value of life is no longer precious? To my mind, God’s role is being played by deciding which vulnerable human beings should die and which ones should live.


To begin with, we are not the ones to choose between life and death that is God’s role and we should not interfere with it. Even if someone is not a believer, taking into account the legal counterpart, they know that each child, as a human being, has the right to live and choose. Consequently, the future baby should be taken into consideration and not only its mother.


Secondly, although it is under consideration whether life begins in the conception or when the fetus is eighteen weeks, it is very clear that life begins from the very instance of the conception, if not how can the result of a simple ovule joined with a spermatozoid grow and turn into a human being?


Last but not least, mothers who undergo an abortion seem to have no thoughts of considering whether the fetus feel pain during the procedure or not. Even if some of them did, are they sure that the fetus does not feel pain during abortion? In fact, the evidence can be traced back to a technical description which would say that changes in heart rate and fetal movement suggest that intrauterine manipulations are painful to the fetus. Apart from that, as regards their psychics, it is needless to say that abortion brings about psychological burdens to those who undergo one.


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In contrast, there are some people who claim that abortion is a decision to make by the mother. They point out that the mother does, after all, have legal rights intended to let her choose what to do with her life. In addition, there are some special cases such as mentally challenged people, who have the right to choose whether they are responsible enough to bring up a child.


Taking these points into consideration, I would say that we are not to choose whether to kill or let a human being live. As Mother Teresa said “The greatest destroyer of peace is abortion because if a mother can kill her own child, what is left for me to kill you and you to kill me? There is nothing between.”





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