Thursday, May 31, 2012

change management

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The Scout Association

1 Introduction

The changes facing the Association are large and will take a lot

of work and time over the next three years. The aim of this

document is to describe how this change can be managed and

the work distributed. In particular, it uses a Change Champion

(the Area/County Commissioner) to keep an overall view of the

change, and a Change Agent (usually someone other than the

Area/County Commissioner) to manage the project in detail.

There are a lot of theories about managing change � particularly

in large organisations. There are two theories that might help us

through the period of change that the Association is about to

enter. One places more emphasis on systems and processes

whilst the other places more emphasis on the people involved.

To be successful, we need to balance these two approaches �

managing change with the people involved and doing so in a

systematic manner.

The model for the Association

The change management model (see page ) suggested for this

project is described in five steps. Some of these steps may

overlap which is fine so long as you are clear about where you

are going overall.

For each of these steps in the change management process,

the following sections describe what should be achieved.

Managing change





Association model

Commitment to change

Where do you want to be?

Where are you now?

How do you get there?


our movement,

our future

.1 Step One Commitment to change

There have always been changes in our Movement � at some

times more than at others. In this period of rapid and large

change, the commitment, support and encouragement of those

leading Counties and Districts will be crucial.We will all win if

everyone is committed to making the same changes.

Demonstrate commitment in leadership

Those leading groups of people will need to show that they are

committed to the change. This includes Group Scout Leaders,

District Commissioners and County/Area Commissioners. This

commitment must be shown by their behaviour and what they say.

Accept the limits that are imposed

Most changes will have some limits � perhaps because of the

number of people, resources or money that you have available.

In this case, there will be limits given by the new programme

(such as age groups). Everyone needs to know about the limits

and accept them.

Engender commitment from all adults in the Movement

All the adults in the Movement must be committed to the

change. This means that everyone must be kept informed and

encouraged to participate. This includes administrators, Leaders,

Helpers, and Commissioners and 0�5 year olds for whom the

changes will provide new opportunities.

Explain why changes are taking place

Ensure that everyone knows why the changes are taking place.

Remember to communicate this often, both before and during

the change process.

Value everyone’s view and ideas

There will be options in the changes and local decisions will

need to be made. Everyone should be encouraged to contribute

to this. All contributions should be considered and people

informed of the outcome.

. Step Two Where do you want to be?

In this step, the Area/County, Districts and Groups should

consider where they would like to end up after the process of


Consider influences

There will be many issues that will shape your view of where you

want to be. There may be external constraints (such as the rules

defining the programme from PRI); external enablers (such as

grants to help development); local factors (such as Area/County

and District development plans); and resource implications

(such as the money and the people required).

Set objectives

Describe what you want to achieve in simple and measurable

terms (you will need to know that you’ve made it!). There may be

overall objectives giving the broad view and detailed objectives

to further define these.

Assign priority

The objectives will need to be put into an order of priority so

that you know what is most important to tackle first. As with

any plan, it is best not to get sidetracked into putting a lot of

time and effort into an item that you consider to be low priority.

Involve local membership

Ask the people involved locally what they think should happen

in the future taking into account the fixed limits. Include as

many people as possible and ensure that you tell them the


Managing change


‘If you don’t create

change, change will

create you’

. Step Three Where are you now?

This step looks at what you are doing at the moment in Groups,

Districts and County/Area. It is sometimes easy to assume

that we know what is going on rather than checking that it is

indeed true. You may find that there is less work to do than you

imagined and you may identify examples of good practice

to share.

Collect data/facts

Find out what is going on � this is a simple audit that should

involve a lot of people.

Collect views throughout the organisation

It is important that lots of people have a chance to tell you what

they think about how they are doing things at the moment.

.4 Step Four How do you get there?

Having decided where you want to be and knowing where you

are now, it is time to decide what you are going to do about it!

Identify methods from many people

Ensure that as many people as possible are asked to identify the

methods for implementing the changes.

Develop options

Once you have some options for methods make sure that the

practical ones are developed.

Choose methods

From the range of methods that are now available, involve the

people who will have to implement these in making the choice.


Generate a plan to put the changes into practice. Ensure that

the plan is clear and timed.

.5 Step Five Implement change


Put the plan into action. Make sure that everyone knows what

the plan is first. Publicise it as widely as possible.


Carefully track the implementation of the changes to ensure

that the plan is achieving its objectives.


Be prepared to alter the plan if it is not quite working out as you

had hoped. Be flexible.

Allocate tasks

Ensure that people know what is expected of them and by when.

Select a Change Agent

For a large change process, it will be helpful to have someone

who can meet people and drive the process on. To be truly

effective the Change Agent will need some power and money

with which to do the job and will need to have credibility in the


Explain the facts

Ensure that everyone knows the facts � the reasons for the

change and what you are going to do.

Deal with resistance

Many people don’t like change. You must accept this and ensure

that you plan to address it.

Managing change



. Focus on people

.1 Key roles

In this paper we have identified two roles � the Change

Champion and the Change Agent. Both roles are key to the

successful implementation of change.

.1.1 Change Champion

The Change Champion keeps an overall view of the change

process and promotes the change to everyone involved.

In the County and Area, the ultimate Change Champion will be

the Area/County Commissioner. However, at times this role will

also be necessary for the District Commissioner and the Group

Scout Leader.

The main aspects of the role are

• Demonstrate commitment to the change. Talk positively about

the change, encourage those who are working on change and

acknowledge progress towards change.

• Ensure that the facts about the change are well known.

Tell people about why the change is necessary, the plan itself,

the end point of the plan, and what has been achieved so far.

Resist the temptation to use hype or spin instead of facts.

• Empower the Change Agent to do the job. The Change Agent will

need power over financial resources,may need other people to

help do the job, and will need to attend meetings and have time

on the agenda.

• Monitor the change process. Let the Change Agent do the

detailed work. Check progress against the plan with the Change

Agent and the District Commissioners.

• Provide management and support for the Change Agent.

Hold regular progress meetings and personal review meetings.

Set targets with the Change Agent.

The County/Area Commissioner will retain the overall

responsibility for the change process. This will include giving

the final approval for the plan and providing ideas and direction

as appropriate.

.1. Change Agent

The Change Agent manages and drives the change on behalf of

the County/Area Commissioner. The main aspects of this role are

• Demonstrate commitment to the change. Talk positively about

the change, encourage those who are working on change and

acknowledge progress towards change.

• Ensure that the facts about the change are well known. Have a

clear understanding of the changes that are taking place � what

and why � and spread the word.

• Lead the change process. Provide the first line advice and

support within the County/Area.

• Act as project manager. Create, implement and monitor the

plan. Solve problems and act as a ‘trouble shooter’.

• Manage the resources allocated. The resources may be finance,

people, materials or time.

• Motivate and enthuse all those affected by the change.

Take opportunities at meetings, at events, and in newsletters.

• Report to the Change Champion. Provide regular updates on

progress (but not all the detail as the Change Champion will

need to see the bigger picture). Check that the project is meeting

the requirements of the Change Champion and the plan.

Agree on changes if necessary.

Managing change


‘The ultimate solutions

to problems are

rational; the process for

thinking them is not’

• Recruit and manage a team. It may be appropriate to gather a

small team to help. This team will report to the Change Agent

and should have clearly defined job descriptions.

. Resisting change

There will often be resistance to change. It may happen for

many reasons. It is important to recognise this and to plan to

deal with it.

..1 Why people resist change

The main reasons for resisting change include

Personal views

People may see no need to change � they may think that the

current situation is fine or that the proposed change will not

work. Some may resist the change simply because it was not

their idea or because they have no interest in change.

Habit and fear of the unknown

It is often easier to stay with the current situation. Change can

mean upsetting the routine and losing a sense of security.

No vision of the benefits

The gains to be made by change may not be clear. In some cases,

only the problems may be apparent.

Reason for change unknown

Some may see only the change itself rather than the benefits of

the change.

Disturbing existing relationships

People may feel challenged, threatened, and perhaps a sense of

loss if current relationships and teams are changed. Some may

fear a loss of status.

No trust in change makers

There may be no trust in the people who are making the change.

There may have been previous mistakes. They may feel that

there are other motives for making the changes.

Not involved

People may feel that they are not influencing the direction or

outcomes of the change and that no one is listening to their


Too much work

The amount of work involved in the change may be daunting.

There are many other reasons for resisting change. It is

important to think about how individuals will view the change.

.. Dealing with resistance

If we start by accepting that there will be resistance to almost

any change, the need to deal with this resistance is clear.

• Accept that whatever you do, however good your

communication and preparation, there will still be resistance

to change.

• Predict the possible reasons for resistance to the change and

plan how you will address them � these might include people

feeling that they will lose their position, influence, authority

or group of friends. When you present the plan, reference and

address these issues directly.

• Once the change process has started, identify the real areas

of resistance. You need to tackle people individually and address


Managing change




It will help others to accept change if the County/Area

Commissioner, District Commissioners and Group Scout Leaders

all support the change by

• Encouraging everyone to take part from the start of the change


• Making clear the areas that are open for discussion and those

that are not.

• Keeping people fully informed and involving people in decision

making that directly affects them.

• Meeting people and talking about the change process.

• Using a positive attitude to the changes in everything that is

said and done.

• Anticipating the adult support issues such as new job

descriptions, existing roles that are no longer required, new

roles, re-training.

• Providing incentives to change such as praise in newsletters,

free resources once a Group is ready to move to a part of the

new system, or free resources to help with implementation once

a District plan has been established.

No matter how hard you work at the change process, accept that

you will lose some people along the way. If people in roles of

power and influence do not support the change, you will need to

consider if they should continue in those roles.

. Motivating people

Many of the ideas that are discussed in this paper will motivate

people and reduce de-motivation. In addition it may help to

consider the following

• Using motivation theories to identify what motivates people

(particularly as individuals).

• Providing clear job descriptions that take into account people’s

goals and aspirations.

• Rewarding people who embrace the changes � don’t forget

simply to tell them that they are doing a good job!

4. Focus on systems

The systems used to plan effectively will be very important.

The Scout Association already uses some techniques that will

be useful. This section gives a few points to consider when


4.1 Planning

Understand what needs to happen

Some parts of the plan may depend on other parts. The use of

diagrams may help you to see the bigger picture.

You can’t do it all at once

Break down the plan into smaller, more manageable chunks and

set objectives for each. Using the systematic planning tool �

NAOMIE � will help.

Set priorities

Give a priority to each objective. Consider how urgent as well as

how important each objective is.

Monitor and review progress

Decide how you will monitor and review the progress of the

project � both the overview and the smaller tasks.

Managing change


‘Lord grant me the grace

to accept the things

I cannot change, the

courage to change the

things that I can and

the wisdom to know

the difference’

Be prepared to tackle something more than once

Learn as you go along and be prepared to take two steps forward

and one step back occasionally.

Be flexible

Identify areas where there is flexibility � this may be in

time-scales or areas in which people can influence the

change process.

Build in contingency

Change is bound to take longer than you anticipate and it will

cost more than you plan for.

Be prepared for a dip in performance

When change is first made, performance drops as people

struggle with the new system and ideas. Eventually performance

will improve. Some people give up at the first sign of difficulty

and want to go back to the original system. Confidence and

reassurance from the Change Champion and the Change Agent

will be crucial at this point.

Identify resources

The resources may be people, money, materials or time.

Resources should be allocated to the tasks in the plan. Look for

ways to combine the tasks to make best use of the resources.

Stay on track

Whilst the plan is being implemented keep referring back to the

plan itself, the outcome of the ‘where do you want to be’ step

and the Change Champion to ensure that you are still on track.


Identify the communication systems you can use to bring about

the changes � e.g. to consult, to explain the nature of the

changes. Make sure that you use the most appropriate systems

and adapt them to meet your needs.

People issues

Consider the people issues mentioned in this paper and don’t

forget to include them in the plan.

4. Other tools

Here is a range of tools that you might consider using at

different stages in the change process. There are, of course, many

others. To order a pack of information to help you further, call

the Information Centre on 0845 00 1818.


• Objective trees

• Brainstorming

• Facilitating

• Generating ideas

• Solving problems

• Styles of leadership

• Diagrams

• How to prioritise -

Johari’s window

• Using meetings

• Forcefield analysis

• Review

• Motivation

• Focus groups

• Questionnaires

• Interviews

• Delegation

• Preparing and giving

a talk

• Project management

• Ask the Adult Support

staff for help

Managing change




5. Summary


• Remember change is a process not an end in itself. If you focus

change on an event that is all it will be, just an event.

• Select priorities for change rather than try to do everything at


• Involve people from all levels at every stage of design and


• Publish early success to build momentum and support.

• Expect it to take longer that you anticipate.


• Underestimate the cost of change build in costing for

communication, training and materials.

• Expect to be able to control all factors. Plan your response to

factors you can’t change.

• Deliver spin or hype but do deal in facts.

6. Bibliography

Managing Change � nd Edition. Christopher Mabey and Bill

Mayon-White. The Open University. Published by Paul Chapman

Publishing. 1. ISBN 1-856-6-0.

Checkpoint. The management checklists and management

thinkers on CD-ROM. Year 000 issue. The Institute of

Management. Three articles may be useful Checklist 08

‘Mapping an effective change programme’; Checklist 040

‘Implementing an effective change programme’; and Checklist

068 ‘Motivating your staff in time of change’.

Communicating ChangeWinning Employee Support for New

Business Goals. T. J. Larkin and Sandar Larkin. Published by

McGraw-Hill 14.

Managing Change and Changing Management. The Open

University Business School. B800 course text for MBA.

Managing People A Wider View. The Open University Business

School. B800 course text for MBA.

Why Do Employees Resist Change? Paul Strebel, Professor of the

Change Programme for international managers at the

International Institute for Management Development. Published

in the Harvard Business Review � 16.

Managing Change. The Government Accountants Journal,

Summer 000.

Managing change


‘Change creates the

opportunity for


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