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Thursday, May 31, 2012

change management

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1


The Scout Association


1 Introduction


The changes facing the Association are large and will take a lot


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of work and time over the next three years. The aim of this


document is to describe how this change can be managed and


the work distributed. In particular, it uses a Change Champion


(the Area/County Commissioner) to keep an overall view of the


change, and a Change Agent (usually someone other than the


Area/County Commissioner) to manage the project in detail.


There are a lot of theories about managing change � particularly


in large organisations. There are two theories that might help us


through the period of change that the Association is about to


enter. One places more emphasis on systems and processes


whilst the other places more emphasis on the people involved.


To be successful, we need to balance these two approaches �


managing change with the people involved and doing so in a


systematic manner.


The model for the Association


The change management model (see page ) suggested for this


project is described in five steps. Some of these steps may


overlap which is fine so long as you are clear about where you


are going overall.


For each of these steps in the change management process,


the following sections describe what should be achieved.


Managing change


People


driven


System


driven


Association model


Commitment to change


Where do you want to be?


Where are you now?


How do you get there?


Implement


our movement,


our future


.1 Step One Commitment to change


There have always been changes in our Movement � at some


times more than at others. In this period of rapid and large


change, the commitment, support and encouragement of those


leading Counties and Districts will be crucial.We will all win if


everyone is committed to making the same changes.


Demonstrate commitment in leadership


Those leading groups of people will need to show that they are


committed to the change. This includes Group Scout Leaders,


District Commissioners and County/Area Commissioners. This


commitment must be shown by their behaviour and what they say.


Accept the limits that are imposed


Most changes will have some limits � perhaps because of the


number of people, resources or money that you have available.


In this case, there will be limits given by the new programme


(such as age groups). Everyone needs to know about the limits


and accept them.


Engender commitment from all adults in the Movement


All the adults in the Movement must be committed to the


change. This means that everyone must be kept informed and


encouraged to participate. This includes administrators, Leaders,


Helpers, and Commissioners and 0�5 year olds for whom the


changes will provide new opportunities.


Explain why changes are taking place


Ensure that everyone knows why the changes are taking place.


Remember to communicate this often, both before and during


the change process.


Value everyone’s view and ideas


There will be options in the changes and local decisions will


need to be made. Everyone should be encouraged to contribute


to this. All contributions should be considered and people


informed of the outcome.


. Step Two Where do you want to be?


In this step, the Area/County, Districts and Groups should


consider where they would like to end up after the process of


change.


Consider influences


There will be many issues that will shape your view of where you


want to be. There may be external constraints (such as the rules


defining the programme from PRI); external enablers (such as


grants to help development); local factors (such as Area/County


and District development plans); and resource implications


(such as the money and the people required).


Set objectives


Describe what you want to achieve in simple and measurable


terms (you will need to know that you’ve made it!). There may be


overall objectives giving the broad view and detailed objectives


to further define these.


Assign priority


The objectives will need to be put into an order of priority so


that you know what is most important to tackle first. As with


any plan, it is best not to get sidetracked into putting a lot of


time and effort into an item that you consider to be low priority.


Involve local membership


Ask the people involved locally what they think should happen


in the future taking into account the fixed limits. Include as


many people as possible and ensure that you tell them the


outcome.


Managing change


continued


‘If you don’t create


change, change will


create you’


. Step Three Where are you now?


This step looks at what you are doing at the moment in Groups,


Districts and County/Area. It is sometimes easy to assume


that we know what is going on rather than checking that it is


indeed true. You may find that there is less work to do than you


imagined and you may identify examples of good practice


to share.


Collect data/facts


Find out what is going on � this is a simple audit that should


involve a lot of people.


Collect views throughout the organisation


It is important that lots of people have a chance to tell you what


they think about how they are doing things at the moment.


.4 Step Four How do you get there?


Having decided where you want to be and knowing where you


are now, it is time to decide what you are going to do about it!


Identify methods from many people


Ensure that as many people as possible are asked to identify the


methods for implementing the changes.


Develop options


Once you have some options for methods make sure that the


practical ones are developed.


Choose methods


From the range of methods that are now available, involve the


people who will have to implement these in making the choice.


Plan


Generate a plan to put the changes into practice. Ensure that


the plan is clear and timed.


.5 Step Five Implement change


Implement


Put the plan into action. Make sure that everyone knows what


the plan is first. Publicise it as widely as possible.


Monitor


Carefully track the implementation of the changes to ensure


that the plan is achieving its objectives.


Adapt


Be prepared to alter the plan if it is not quite working out as you


had hoped. Be flexible.


Allocate tasks


Ensure that people know what is expected of them and by when.


Select a Change Agent


For a large change process, it will be helpful to have someone


who can meet people and drive the process on. To be truly


effective the Change Agent will need some power and money


with which to do the job and will need to have credibility in the


Area/County.


Explain the facts


Ensure that everyone knows the facts � the reasons for the


change and what you are going to do.


Deal with resistance


Many people don’t like change. You must accept this and ensure


that you plan to address it.


Managing change


continued


4


. Focus on people


.1 Key roles


In this paper we have identified two roles � the Change


Champion and the Change Agent. Both roles are key to the


successful implementation of change.


.1.1 Change Champion


The Change Champion keeps an overall view of the change


process and promotes the change to everyone involved.


In the County and Area, the ultimate Change Champion will be


the Area/County Commissioner. However, at times this role will


also be necessary for the District Commissioner and the Group


Scout Leader.


The main aspects of the role are


• Demonstrate commitment to the change. Talk positively about


the change, encourage those who are working on change and


acknowledge progress towards change.


• Ensure that the facts about the change are well known.


Tell people about why the change is necessary, the plan itself,


the end point of the plan, and what has been achieved so far.


Resist the temptation to use hype or spin instead of facts.


• Empower the Change Agent to do the job. The Change Agent will


need power over financial resources,may need other people to


help do the job, and will need to attend meetings and have time


on the agenda.


• Monitor the change process. Let the Change Agent do the


detailed work. Check progress against the plan with the Change


Agent and the District Commissioners.


• Provide management and support for the Change Agent.


Hold regular progress meetings and personal review meetings.


Set targets with the Change Agent.


The County/Area Commissioner will retain the overall


responsibility for the change process. This will include giving


the final approval for the plan and providing ideas and direction


as appropriate.


.1. Change Agent


The Change Agent manages and drives the change on behalf of


the County/Area Commissioner. The main aspects of this role are


• Demonstrate commitment to the change. Talk positively about


the change, encourage those who are working on change and


acknowledge progress towards change.


• Ensure that the facts about the change are well known. Have a


clear understanding of the changes that are taking place � what


and why � and spread the word.


• Lead the change process. Provide the first line advice and


support within the County/Area.


• Act as project manager. Create, implement and monitor the


plan. Solve problems and act as a ‘trouble shooter’.


• Manage the resources allocated. The resources may be finance,


people, materials or time.


• Motivate and enthuse all those affected by the change.


Take opportunities at meetings, at events, and in newsletters.


• Report to the Change Champion. Provide regular updates on


progress (but not all the detail as the Change Champion will


need to see the bigger picture). Check that the project is meeting


the requirements of the Change Champion and the plan.


Agree on changes if necessary.


Managing change


continued


‘The ultimate solutions


to problems are


rational; the process for


thinking them is not’


• Recruit and manage a team. It may be appropriate to gather a


small team to help. This team will report to the Change Agent


and should have clearly defined job descriptions.


. Resisting change


There will often be resistance to change. It may happen for


many reasons. It is important to recognise this and to plan to


deal with it.


..1 Why people resist change


The main reasons for resisting change include


Personal views


People may see no need to change � they may think that the


current situation is fine or that the proposed change will not


work. Some may resist the change simply because it was not


their idea or because they have no interest in change.


Habit and fear of the unknown


It is often easier to stay with the current situation. Change can


mean upsetting the routine and losing a sense of security.


No vision of the benefits


The gains to be made by change may not be clear. In some cases,


only the problems may be apparent.


Reason for change unknown


Some may see only the change itself rather than the benefits of


the change.


Disturbing existing relationships


People may feel challenged, threatened, and perhaps a sense of


loss if current relationships and teams are changed. Some may


fear a loss of status.


No trust in change makers


There may be no trust in the people who are making the change.


There may have been previous mistakes. They may feel that


there are other motives for making the changes.


Not involved


People may feel that they are not influencing the direction or


outcomes of the change and that no one is listening to their


views.


Too much work


The amount of work involved in the change may be daunting.


There are many other reasons for resisting change. It is


important to think about how individuals will view the change.


.. Dealing with resistance


If we start by accepting that there will be resistance to almost


any change, the need to deal with this resistance is clear.


• Accept that whatever you do, however good your


communication and preparation, there will still be resistance


to change.


• Predict the possible reasons for resistance to the change and


plan how you will address them � these might include people


feeling that they will lose their position, influence, authority


or group of friends. When you present the plan, reference and


address these issues directly.


• Once the change process has started, identify the real areas


of resistance. You need to tackle people individually and address


concerns.


Managing change


continued


5


6


It will help others to accept change if the County/Area


Commissioner, District Commissioners and Group Scout Leaders


all support the change by


• Encouraging everyone to take part from the start of the change


process.


• Making clear the areas that are open for discussion and those


that are not.


• Keeping people fully informed and involving people in decision


making that directly affects them.


• Meeting people and talking about the change process.


• Using a positive attitude to the changes in everything that is


said and done.


• Anticipating the adult support issues such as new job


descriptions, existing roles that are no longer required, new


roles, re-training.


• Providing incentives to change such as praise in newsletters,


free resources once a Group is ready to move to a part of the


new system, or free resources to help with implementation once


a District plan has been established.


No matter how hard you work at the change process, accept that


you will lose some people along the way. If people in roles of


power and influence do not support the change, you will need to


consider if they should continue in those roles.


. Motivating people


Many of the ideas that are discussed in this paper will motivate


people and reduce de-motivation. In addition it may help to


consider the following


• Using motivation theories to identify what motivates people


(particularly as individuals).


• Providing clear job descriptions that take into account people’s


goals and aspirations.


• Rewarding people who embrace the changes � don’t forget


simply to tell them that they are doing a good job!


4. Focus on systems


The systems used to plan effectively will be very important.


The Scout Association already uses some techniques that will


be useful. This section gives a few points to consider when


planning.


4.1 Planning


Understand what needs to happen


Some parts of the plan may depend on other parts. The use of


diagrams may help you to see the bigger picture.


You can’t do it all at once


Break down the plan into smaller, more manageable chunks and


set objectives for each. Using the systematic planning tool �


NAOMIE � will help.


Set priorities


Give a priority to each objective. Consider how urgent as well as


how important each objective is.


Monitor and review progress


Decide how you will monitor and review the progress of the


project � both the overview and the smaller tasks.


Managing change


continued


‘Lord grant me the grace


to accept the things


I cannot change, the


courage to change the


things that I can and


the wisdom to know


the difference’


Be prepared to tackle something more than once


Learn as you go along and be prepared to take two steps forward


and one step back occasionally.


Be flexible


Identify areas where there is flexibility � this may be in


time-scales or areas in which people can influence the


change process.


Build in contingency


Change is bound to take longer than you anticipate and it will


cost more than you plan for.


Be prepared for a dip in performance


When change is first made, performance drops as people


struggle with the new system and ideas. Eventually performance


will improve. Some people give up at the first sign of difficulty


and want to go back to the original system. Confidence and


reassurance from the Change Champion and the Change Agent


will be crucial at this point.


Identify resources


The resources may be people, money, materials or time.


Resources should be allocated to the tasks in the plan. Look for


ways to combine the tasks to make best use of the resources.


Stay on track


Whilst the plan is being implemented keep referring back to the


plan itself, the outcome of the ‘where do you want to be’ step


and the Change Champion to ensure that you are still on track.


Communicate


Identify the communication systems you can use to bring about


the changes � e.g. to consult, to explain the nature of the


changes. Make sure that you use the most appropriate systems


and adapt them to meet your needs.


People issues


Consider the people issues mentioned in this paper and don’t


forget to include them in the plan.


4. Other tools


Here is a range of tools that you might consider using at


different stages in the change process. There are, of course, many


others. To order a pack of information to help you further, call


the Information Centre on 0845 00 1818.


• NAOMIE


• Objective trees


• Brainstorming


• Facilitating


• Generating ideas


• Solving problems


• Styles of leadership


• Diagrams


• How to prioritise -


Johari’s window


• Using meetings


• Forcefield analysis


• Review


• Motivation


• Focus groups


• Questionnaires


• Interviews


• Delegation


• Preparing and giving


a talk


• Project management


• Ask the Adult Support


staff for help


Managing change


continued


7


8


5. Summary


Do…


• Remember change is a process not an end in itself. If you focus


change on an event that is all it will be, just an event.


• Select priorities for change rather than try to do everything at


once.


• Involve people from all levels at every stage of design and


implementation.


• Publish early success to build momentum and support.


• Expect it to take longer that you anticipate.


Don’t…


• Underestimate the cost of change build in costing for


communication, training and materials.


• Expect to be able to control all factors. Plan your response to


factors you can’t change.


• Deliver spin or hype but do deal in facts.


6. Bibliography


Managing Change � nd Edition. Christopher Mabey and Bill


Mayon-White. The Open University. Published by Paul Chapman


Publishing. 1. ISBN 1-856-6-0.


Checkpoint. The management checklists and management


thinkers on CD-ROM. Year 000 issue. The Institute of


Management. Three articles may be useful Checklist 08


‘Mapping an effective change programme’; Checklist 040


‘Implementing an effective change programme’; and Checklist


068 ‘Motivating your staff in time of change’.


Communicating ChangeWinning Employee Support for New


Business Goals. T. J. Larkin and Sandar Larkin. Published by


McGraw-Hill 14.


Managing Change and Changing Management. The Open


University Business School. B800 course text for MBA.


Managing People A Wider View. The Open University Business


School. B800 course text for MBA.


Why Do Employees Resist Change? Paul Strebel, Professor of the


Change Programme for international managers at the


International Institute for Management Development. Published


in the Harvard Business Review � 16.


Managing Change. The Government Accountants Journal,


Summer 000.


Managing change


continued


‘Change creates the


opportunity for


innovation’


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