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Tuesday, June 5, 2012

Abortion in American

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Abortion has always been a very controversial issue. This can be due to the fact that people have different beliefs that are emphasized by their own religion and set of moral values. Many people believe that abortion is wrong, but they believe that is it only wrong under certain circumstances. This could be true, but is it more right to kill for a specific reason than to just do it because you made an irresponsible decision? Because of the wide spectrum of religion and various moral beliefs, there will never be a right or wrong answer to abortion. So, the only thing there is to do is take a stand.


In my opinion, to abort a baby that you are carrying as a result of unprotected sex is morally and religiously wrong. You are killing a life that God has created within you (with your assistance of course). Just like God predestined our lives, he has done the same for that unborn child as well. For a woman to interfere with what God has planned is just wrong. If you got pregnant, then it was meant for you to assist in populating the earth. If not you would be sterile, or have other fertility problems. Everything happens for a reason. When women make a decision to have unprotected sex, they should think of the consequences that could follow. So as a result of making a bad decision, it is unfair for her to try to undo history and take the baby back. Having unprotected sex was a decision that she made and when we make decisions, we enjoy the benefits of that decision, but we also have to realize and take on the consequences as human beings. To undo what has already been predestined is to interfere with faith and destiny.


In the argument for abortion, many people argue that the fetus is not a human being or does not have life. From the time a baby is conceived, we recognize it as life. So does it not become life when you decide to kill it? No, it is still a life, but one that you decided to end for whatever reason you may have. Another thing that serves as proof on the religious level is that in the bible in Leviticus Chapter 17 Verse 11, it states that “For the life of the flesh is in the blood,” meaning that the blood is what gives one life. Before anyone is born, they are a fetus and the fetus is mainly composed of blood because the other organs have not developed at this early stage. This should satisfy the argument that a fetus is not actually a human life.


There are also other circumstances that should be taken into consideration. For instance, if a woman has been raped, I think she should have a choice to decide what she wants to happen. It is unfair for her to have to have a child that she did not want and was not a result of her decision but an irresponsible action of another human being. She would not be able to give that child the love and support he or she will need throughout their life. So, with that said, this should be the only reason people are allowed to have abortions. Other than that, just take responsibility for your actions and decisions and move on from there. We should not look at is as the end of the world, but the beginning of a new one.


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Piaget

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Every parent and teacher goes through the dilemma of figuring out when to teach their child and at what stage in life do we teach them. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development, stated that children go through a period of stages in which they develop. The four stages of Piaget’s theory grouped the development of a child into age groups, in which interaction with people and the natural world is necessary for cognitive development. Briefly, the four stages of Piaget’s theory are the sensorimotor stage (birth until ), the preoperational stage ( until 6 or 7), the concrete operational stage (6 or 7 until 11 or 1), and the formal operation stage (11 or 1 through adulthood). According to Piaget, children in the pre-operational stage use mental representations, such as mental images, drawings, words, and gestures, rather than just motor actions to think about objects and events. Children in this stage think faster, are more flexible and efficient, and more socially involved. Their thinking is limited due to egocentrism, focus on only perceptual states, reliance on appearance rather than underlying realities, and the inability to comprehend reversibility. In Piaget’s opinion, children in the pre-operational were incapable of succeeding at his conservation tasks, because they lacked knowledge to conserve. Conservation means to understand that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes. Piaget’s conservation tasks involved tests for conservation of number, solid, and liquid. According to Piaget, children in the concrete stage are able to easily solve the problems faced in the conservation task due to their cognitive development.


In Piaget’s conservation task, 5 year olds were asked to follow procedures for the conservation of number, solid quantity, and liquid quantity. The conservation of number involves taking two rows with the same number of things, for example coins, fruits, and buttons that are equally spaced. Initially, the 5 year olds knew that the two rows were had the same number, but if one row was shortened, children failed to notice that the two rows were the same. On the task for conservation of solid quantity, he showed young children two pencils, two pens, or two sticks of the same length laying down next to one another. Piaget, then moved one of the sticks to show the children that by moving one of the sticks, it would make it longer than the other and as he had predicted, the children were unable to realize that the two sticks were of the same length. In the task of conservation of liquid, he described he showed young children the same amount of water in two identical glasses and allowed the children to realize that both of the glasses were of the same size and the water in them were of equal proportion. Piaget then took one of the glasses and poured the water into a longer, thinner glass and concluded that the children were unable to comprehend that the new glass contained the same amount as the original two glasses of water. According to Piaget, children’s thinking is perception bound in the pre-operational stage and that they could not focus their attention on two aspects, because their attention was to only one aspect.


In two studies done of Piaget’s conservation tasks, it was evident that children during the pre-operational stage are unable to succeed as the tests. Anderson and Cuneo found that twenty children, ages 6 and 7, were put to Piaget’s tasks with regard to the concept of area failed. Twenty other children, who were at the age of 8, were able to apply “an additive rule” to solve the problems, while the nonconserving children showed patterns of concentrating on only one of the two dimensions. In another study, Fiati (1) studied children in the Volta regiorn of West Africa and attempted to find a correlation between children learning in different cultures and conservation. Since children in the Volta region were growing up in isolated, agricultural villages their experiences with time, money, and mathematical computation were different from children living in settings with schools. Under these conditions, Fiati discovered that the children living in the non-school setting lacked comparable abilities to the children that went to school. Fiati concluded that children’s central conceptual structures for numbers did not advance past the unidimensional level. He also stated that these unidimensional structures are universal and that children tested on central conceptual structures progressed through the same stages and at the same rate, but on the test of specific understanding, there was “cross-national differences” and from this Fiati concluded that if a culture values a particular task and invests time and effort in to teaching them, it is likely that children will pass the tasks. According to these studies, it is conclusive that children at the stage of pre-operational have problems with Piaget’s tasks, but according to Fiati, if these tasks are practiced and effort is put in to learning them, children can pass the tests.


After reviewing Piaget’s conservation tasks and the studies done on them, I set up an experiment designed to mimic Piaget’s test for conservation of number, solid quantity, and liquid quantity. The idea that children at the age of 5 are not capable of passing the tasks of conservations, while 8 year olds are able to succeed will be tested in the following experiment. The purpose of this experiment is to test Piaget’s belief that children at the stage of Pre-operational are not able to succeed at the conservation tasks because it is not in their ability to understand such concepts.


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Methods


Participant


My subject is a four year old girl named Sarah, who according to Piaget would be in the pre-operational stage and would not succeed at the task that will be presented to her and ten year old Kiran, who would succeed. Before presenting Sarah and Kiran with the tasks, I had to prepare the experiment according to the way Piaget had performed it. There were some modifications in the experiment in that I used M&M candies for the conservation of number and also assured the subjects that they would be rewarded for their participation, in order to keep their interest. For each task, the subjects were separated and had no knowledge of what was going to be presented to them before performing the task. In testing the conservation of number, I set two rows M&M candies, approximately eight, on a table and counted out the numbers of M&M candies to Sarah. She realized that each row had eight candies and responded “eight”, when I asked her to confirm how many candies were to each row. I, then took the candies in one of the row and placed them further apart from each other and asked Sarah to tell me if both rows of candies were the same. According to Piaget, Sarah would respond that the row with the candies further apart had more and according to her response, that is exactly what she did. I, then had Sarah leave the area of the experiment and had Kiran follow the same procedures as Sarah had done. When asked about the rows after the transformation, Kiran replied that they both were the same, except that one of the rows were spaced further apart. This sort of response is what Piaget had predicted and this is due to the fact that Kiran is in stage, where is capable of handling these tasks, while Sarah is not able to comprehend the transformations.


For the test of liquid quantity, I had two identical glasses and filled them up with water and placed them on the table. I then took another glass, except that it was longer and thinner as compared to the two other glasses. I asked Sarah to look at the two identical glasses and tell me that if both of the them had the same amount of water and she responded “yes”. After getting a response from her, I attempted to take the water from one of the glasses and pour it in the longer and thinner glass. After pouring it in the glass, I asked Sarah if both of the glasses had the same amount of water and she concluded that the tall and thinner glass had more water. I then asked Sarah to leave the room where the experiment was being held and had Kiran come in and follow the same procedures. I asked Kiran to tell me if both of the identical glasses had the same amount of water and she determined that both were of the same amount. After performing the transformation, she realized that both of the glasses, while different in size and shape, still had the same amount of water. Up till this part of the experiment, both Sarah’s and Kiran’s responses were of no surprise and to note, both subjects had full concentration while performing Piaget’s tasks. The idea of receiving something in response to the participation might have played a part in their full concentration and honest responses.


In the task of conserving solid quantity, I had two pencils of the same length placed next to one another and had Sarah look at them and asked her if they were the same and she said they were the same. After getting a response, I moved one of the pencils ahead of the other and asked her if they were still the same and she said “no”. She failed to realize that both of the pencils were of the same length except that one was just moved ahead of the other. When Kiran was put to the test, she realized that both of the pencils were of the same length in the initial part of the task and after the transformation concluded that they were the same length regardless of the transformation.





Results


As Piaget had predicted, all the results were consistent with his findings and had the support of his stage theories, that Sarah was incapable of performing such tasks, while Kiran was able to due to her placement in the concrete operational. According to Piaget, changes or stages in childhood development are universal and the results stated above prove that, but could it be that it was something about the way the experiment was performed that caused such results to occur. In each task, Sarah was shown the items before and after the transformations and she consistently believed that after the change in formation, the items were not the same. Sarah’s placement in the pre-operational stage concludes that she does not have cognitive ability to succeed in the tasks. Neither Sarah or Kiran were not rushed in to any judgment about the tasks and their answers were purely on their cognitive abilities. There was additional information provided about the items involved or the situation of the transformation, all questions and procedures were identical in each subject’s case and as a result we concluded that both Sarah and Kiran were able to display Piaget’s beliefs. Kiran was very consistent in her answers and had no difficulty understanding the directions and procedures whatsoever. Neither of the subjects looked for cues from the experimenter and no cues were provided to the subjects. The results show that Kiran and Sarah are in different stages of development and this is the cause of the difference in responses.





Discussion


In conclusion, it is evident that Piaget’s tasks of conservation were designed to produce success in children beyond the pre-operational stage. Both participants in the study, displayed exactly what Piaget had predicted and led the results to show that Piaget’s theory could be correct in terms of universal development. But, this would be true if children were placed in a controlled environment their whole life and their interactions with others were controlled also. If the procedures modified in such that the children were able to perform the task with the experimenter, the results might have been different. Sarah might have been more involved in putting the M&M candies on the table and counting them with the experimenter out loud. This act of involvement would allow Sarah to successfully accomplish his conservation tasks. Sarah’s attention, understanding of the concepts of numbers and the hands on experience on the tasks would make her realize that the transformations did not change the amount of candy, water, or the length of the pencil. Based on these changes, Sarah would be in the preoperational stage and be able to conserve the number and do conserve liquid very early in life contrary to Piaget’s theory of stages and his tasks.





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Sunday, June 3, 2012

Business management

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Business management. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Business management paper right on time.

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1. (0 points) Managers require a wide variety of skills. Not all types of skills, however, are equally important at all levels of management. For the following three types of skills, identify the level of management (top management, middle management, or front line management) for which the skill is most important and why you think it is most important for that level.


• Technical skills


Technical skills are most important in front line management. When I complete my BBA with an emphasis in management I don’t expect to go to work managing a chemistry lab at M. Although I may be an excellent manager, I would have no idea how to guide the chemists in their work. I could, however go to work as a construction site foreman for xxx, a national construction firm. I could use my knowledge about which construction materials are needed, how they are put together and my management skills to lead and develop the crew’s construction skills.


• Conceptual skills


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Conceptual skills are important to top level management. If I were the CEO of xxx I would not want to worry about the day to day operations of each individual construction site. I would not need to know much about construction or even which end of a hammer to use. I would need to have extensive knowledge of how my organization’s parts fit together and what this makes it capable of. I would use this knowledge to develop a vision for where I would lead xxx and make it capable of expanding into these areas of the construction market.


• Communications skills


Communication skills are important in absolutely every level of management. Management is coordinating the activities of people to get work done that you cannot do your self. To do this you have to effectively communicate what you want done to the people doing it for you. This is true for front line management to communicate to labor what needs to be done for the day to get the next phase of construction done, middle management to communicate to the frontline managers to coordinate the construction of the entire building complete and for top management to communicate to the middle managers who are setting up operations on the east coast so that we can start bidding on projects in the growing construction market there. Each level must effectively communicate to and receive communication from the level below it to successfully direct it in the way you want it to go.


. (0 points) For years, the tuna canning companies bought tuna from fishing boats that caught and killed dolphins (the mammal) as a “by-catch.” Some years back, this practice was brought to light by activists, which caused an uproar among the public. Threats of boycotts against the companies ensued and there was substantial negative publicity. Fearing a loss of revenues, most tuna canning companies adopted a policy of not purchasing from boats that engaged in this practice. To communicate this policy to the public, the companies put a small logo on their cans of tuna guaranteeing that they were “dolphin-friendly.” Using the authors’ terminology, what level of social responsibility would you ascribe to the tuna canning companies? Justify your answer.


Considering that the tuna canning companies put the “dolphin friendly” seal on the cans of tuna in response to a threatened boycott originated by the International Marine Mammal Project and the negative publicity that ensued, I would ascribe to them the Social Reaction level of social responsibility.


Tuna fishermen used to actually look for dolphins and set their purse seine around them because for unknown reasons the tuna stay close to the dolphins. Canners such as Starkist, Chicken of the Sea and Bumblebee all knew that this fishing method was being utilized, and would have been classified as “social responsiveness” had they stopped before public outcry forced them to.


I think that this level has changed since then. Congress passed legislation setting a standard of non-encirclement of dolphins which became the U.S. legal standard for the Dolphin Safe tuna label. Because of this they are required to follow this standard and now are at the “social obligation” level. The tuna industry has also adopted another method of catching tuna that have adverse environmental effects. This is called “log fishing” where all marine life including turtles, sharks, and other animals are caught along with the tuna. The canners know the effect this has on sea life but continue. Until they voluntarily quit this type of practice before they are forced to by either social or legal obligations they will never be a socially responsive industry.


. (0 points) Describe the following concepts or terms. Where do these concepts or terms come from and to what do they apply?


All four of these concepts come from Geert H. Hofstede and his work on four dimensions of cultural variability, commonly referred to as Hofstedes Dimensions. Hofstede originally published these concepts in his 180 publication, Cultures consequences International differences in work-related values. This study took existing survey data (sample size of 116,000) collected from a multinational corporation. The result was a score in each of the dimensions for 40 different countries. Hofstede calculated scores for these dimensions (on a scale from around 0 and 100) for many countries.


• Power Distance


Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less powerful expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. Power distance can be described in terms of high and low power distance. In a high power distance culture people are subordinate than in a low power distance culture. In a high power distance culture such as China, employees would never expect to be consulted about a task; they just do what the supervisor asks. China has a power distance score of 80. Israel has a very low power distance score of 1. In this culture supervisors would be expected to be very democratic and take input from subordinates on decisions.


• Uncertainty Avoidance


Uncertainty avoidance is how comfortable a culture feels about the unknown. Cultures with higher uncertainty avoidance express a need for formality, predictability and clear rules so that there is no question about how things are done. They also have more anxiety when faced with situations where the unknown is a factor. Denmark has very low uncertainty avoidance at while Japan’s is very high at .


• Individualism versus Collectivism


In individualistic societies there are few ties between the members of that society whereas in collectivist societies people belong to strong, cohesive groups. The United States, as we know, is very individualistic. We are actually the most individualistic society with a score of 1. We could not care less what others think, we will do whatever we please. Many Asian countries tend to see themselves as a part of the whole. Some examples of these are Taiwan and South Korea who have individuality scores of 14 and 18. This is one of many reasons for the rapid economic rise of these countries in the last century. They work as a collective to effectively accomplish a task that a number of individuals could not.


• Masculinity versus Femininity


As you said in class, this has nothing to do with gender; it has to do with the aggressiveness of culture. More aggressive cultures are considered more masculine and more passive cultures are considered more feminine. In a more masculine culture people are assertive, tough, and concerned with material success. In a more feminine society people are more modest, tender, interested in the quality of life and display very little confrontation.


Austria is very masculine at 7 and Denmark is more feminine at 16


All of these concepts are important to keep in mind when dealing with other cultures.


4. (0 points) In the Boston Consulting Group Portfolio Matrix, the preferred action when dealing with a cash cow is to dedicate just enough resources to keep it going but not engage in any meaningful investment in the unit. What is the reasoning behind this strategy?


This is because you have a situation where one of your strategic business units is experiencing low market growth rate and high relative market share. Now that I have learned what a cash cow is in this class I realize that my former employer is a cash cow and is an excellent example for this paper. xxx Fuel is part of a larger organization that includes other fuel companies and barging outfits. I worked for them for 7 years and in that time we took over most of the residential, commercial and marine fuel market share in xxx. The only competition has just enough of the market to keep others from coming in to compete. We set up the local infrastructure such as storage tanks that enable us to get the cheapest fuel possible, warehouses to store resale items and maintenance facilities to keep everything running. Everything is as efficient as possible and there is no more room to grow so any further investment would be pointless. The larger organization can use the cash generated in xxx to invest in strategic business units where they have a high market growth rate and high market share which would be considered a star.


5. (0 points) Explain the phenomenon known as “heightened commitment” or “escalation of commitment.” Why does this occur and how might you as a senior manager avoid it in your company?


This is a situation where you become increasingly committed to a poor choice of action. This can occur if emotion becomes involved in your decision making or if a project is fundamentally flawed and it is not realized right away. You may have a project that is your “pet” and you want it to work so badly that you keep “pouring good money after bad” in an attempt to make it work. I saw a good example of this on TV the other day. A sex education instructor had what she thought was a great idea. She sewed a small pocket into a pair of underwear that was to contain a condom. She figured that if it was right there when it was needed it was more likely to be used. Her students thought it was a great idea and were supportive so she invested twenty thousand dollars into producing a bunch of this underwear. She got some interest from small clothing outlets but was rejected by large distributors because it was too risqu�. (Possibly like this example!) She wanted it to work so badly that she ended up investing one hundred thousand dollars into it, but still not many people wanted to buy it. She poured good money after bad because her emotional involvement in wanting to increase condom use caused her to invest more money in a product that had little appeal to consumers.


If I were a senior manager I would avoid this in the following ways First I would instruct my project leaders to keep emotions separate from decision making. Secondly, I would set goals for a project which if they are not met by a certain time the plug will automatically be pulled. Lastly, I would have one person start the project, then have another carry it from there, the second will be more likely to have an objective view of its success or failure. The woman in my example should have done more market research by contacting distributors to gauge their interest and use focus groups made up of her target market that have no bias toward her product.


Bonus Question (5 points) What are the advantages and disadvantages of group or participatory decision-making?


Personally I like to make important decisions on my own. If I just consider all of the facts that I can and make the decision I save myself a lot of frustration. The hardest part of involving a group to make a decision is to deal with their dynamics. If everyone would focus on the question at hand it would make the process easier. I was the president of the Cooperative Preschool last school year. I was the only male there and it was very hard to get a bunch of moms to focus on the task at hand. I decided to grin and bear it and chalk it up to leadership experience. It would take a lot of time to get a simple decision during a ½ hour long 1 hour meeting because it was hard to fit important topics in between the conversations about quilting and stuff. There was one woman, the treasurer, who had a very strong personality. Everyone was afraid to make a decision if she wasn’t there and when she was there she tried to dominate the meeting. I had to do some careful stepping to make sure that she did not have undue influence on our decisions. It is very hard to get the right mix of talents when your talent pool is the parents who happen to enroll their kids in the preschool that year. I did my best and tried to get the right personalities in the right positions.


It may sound like this was a bad experience but, no way, it was a great experience. I learned that I cannot always make all of the decisions and that if I included others they were generally more accepted. All of the moms, and me, put our heads together, brought our individual talents to bear, and made some great decisions like getting xxx to help us get all new tables, chairs, play equipment and learning materials. I learned that I did not always have all of the information necessary to make a proper decision. Once I wanted to have the accounting done professionally, and almost did it before I decided that the entire board should make this call. A parent told us that she knew someone who would donate accounting services to us. I did not have that information! Being president of the preschool was beneficial to me and the other parents because we all developed lasting relationships and learned much about decision making.





Please note that this sample paper on Business management is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Business management, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Business management will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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